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Titolo:
CHOLECYSTOKININ AND PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDERS - ROLE IN ETIOLOGY AND POTENTIAL OF RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS IN THERAPY
Autore:
SHLIK J; VASAR E; BRADWEJN J;
Indirizzi:
UNIV TORONTO,CLARKE INST PSYCHIAT,PSYCHOBIOL & CLIN TRIALS RES UNIT,250 COLL ST TORONTO ON M5T 1R8 CANADA UNIV TORONTO,CLARKE INST PSYCHIAT,PSYCHOBIOL & CLIN TRIALS RES UNIT ANXIETY TORONTO ON M5T 1R8 CANADA TARTU STATE UNIV,DEPT PSYCHIAT EE-202400 TARTU ESTONIA TARTU STATE UNIV,DEPT PHYSIOL EE-202400 TARTU ESTONIA
Titolo Testata:
CNS DRUGS
fascicolo: 2, volume: 8, anno: 1997,
pagine: 134 - 152
SICI:
1172-7047(1997)8:2<134:CAP-RI>2.0.ZU;2-F
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
RAT CEREBRAL-CORTEX; MIDBRAIN DOPAMINE NEURONS; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM; PANCREATIC ACINAR-CELLS; CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID CSF; GASTRIC PARIETAL-CELLS; ELEVATED PLUS-MAZE; PANIC DISORDER; NUCLEUS-ACCUMBENS; B RECEPTOR;
Tipo documento:
Review
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Science Citation Index Expanded
Science Citation Index Expanded
Citazioni:
197
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Citazione:
J. Shlik et al., "CHOLECYSTOKININ AND PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDERS - ROLE IN ETIOLOGY AND POTENTIAL OF RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS IN THERAPY", CNS DRUGS, 8(2), 1997, pp. 134-152

Abstract

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the brain. It is found in the highest levels in cortical and limbic structures and also in the basal ganglia. Two subtypes of CCK receptors have been described in the brain and gastrointestinal tissues. CCKA (alimentary subtype) receptors are mainly located in the gastrointestinal tract, regulating secretion of enzymes from the pancreas and emptying of the gallbladder. However, CCKA receptors are also found in several brain regions, with the highest densities in structures poorly protected by the haematoencephalic barrier (the area postrema, nucleus tractus solitarius and hypothalamus). The distribution of CCKB (brain subtype) receptors overlaps with the localisation of CCK and its mRNA in different brain areas, with the highest densities in the cerebral cortex,basal ganglia, nucleus accumbens and forebrain limbic structures. Both subtype of CCK receptor belong to the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-linked receptor superfamily containing 7 transmembrane domains. Signal transduction at CCK receptors is mediated via G(q) protein-related activation of phospholipase C and the formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG). Recent cloning of CCKA and CCKB receptors has shown that mRNA for both receptorsis distributed in the same tissues as established in radioligand binding and receptor autoradiography studies, with few exceptions. The existence of multiple CCK receptors has fuelled the development of selective CCKA and CCKB receptor antagonists. These antagonists belong to distinct chemical groups, including dibutyryl derivatives of cyclic nucleotides, amino acid derivatives, partial sequences and derivatives of the -COOH terminal sequence heptapeptides of CCK, benzodiazepine derivatives, 'peptoids' based on fragments of the CCK molecule, and pyrazolidinones. At the present time, the compounds of choice for blockade ofthe CCKA receptor are lorglumide, devazepide and lintitript (SR27897). L-365,260, CI-988, L-740,093 and LY288513 are the drugs most widely used to block CCKB receptors. Studies with CCK antagonists (and agonists) in animals and humans suggest a role for CCK in the regulation of anxiety and panic. The administration of CCK agonists [ceruletide (caerulein), CCK-4, pentagastrin] has an anxiogenic action in various animal models and in different animal species. However, the anxiogenic action of CCK agonists is restricted to nonconditioned (ethological) models of anxiety, with very limited activity in the 'classical' conditioned models. Pharmacological studies have revealed that CCKB receptors are the key targets in the anxiogenic action of CCK agonists. Nevertheless, CCKB antagonists displayed very little activity, if any at all, in these models, but strongly antagonised the effects of CCKB agonists. The anxiogenic/panicogenic action of CCKB agonists (CCK-4, pentagastrin) is even more pronounced in human studies, but the effectiveness ofCCKB antagonists as anxiolytics remains unclear. Clinical trials performed to date have provided inconclusive data about the anxiolytic potential of CCKB receptor antagonists, probably because of limiting pharmacokinetic factors. The results of some animal experiments suggest a role for CCK in depression. The administration of CCKB antagonists causes antidepressant-like action in mouse models of depression. However,human studies replicating this result have yet to be carried out. A prominent biochemical alteration in schizophrenia is a reduction of CCKlevels in the cerebral cortex. This change may be related to the lossof cortical neurons, due to the schizophrenic process itself. In animal studies (mainly in mice), administration of CCK agonists and antagonists has been shown to be effective in several models, reflecting a possible antipsychotic activity of these drugs. However, the data obtained in human studies suggest that CCK agonists and antagonists do not improve the symptoms of schizophrenia. Taking into account the reducedlevels of CCK and its receptors found in schizophrenia, treatments increasing, but not blocking, brain CCK activity may be more appropriate.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 19/01/20 alle ore 12:00:04