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Titolo:
Genome and hormones: Gender differences in physiology - Invited review: Estrogens effects on the brain: multiple sites and molecular mechanisms
Autore:
McEwen, BS;
Indirizzi:
Rockefeller Univ, Harold & Margaret Milliken Hatch Lab Neuroendocri, New York, NY 10021 USA Rockefeller Univ New York NY USA 10021 uroendocri, New York, NY 10021 USA
Titolo Testata:
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY
fascicolo: 6, volume: 91, anno: 2001,
pagine: 2785 - 2801
SICI:
8750-7587(200112)91:6<2785:GAHGDI>2.0.ZU;2-0
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
DENDRITIC SPINE DENSITY; RECEPTOR MESSENGER-RNA; HIPPOCAMPAL PYRAMIDAL CELLS; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM; GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING-HORMONE; PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN; LONG-TERM POTENTIATION; SPATIAL MEMORY TASK; RAT PREOPTIC AREA;
Keywords:
progestin; estrogen receptors; serotonin; cholinergic; hippocampus; synaptogenesis; cognitive function; sex differences; aging; neuroprotection; Alzheimer's disease;
Tipo documento:
Review
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Life Sciences
Citazioni:
224
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: McEwen, BS Rockefeller Univ, Harold & Margaret Milliken Hatch Lab Neuroendocri, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10021 USA Rockefeller Univ 1230 York Ave New York NY USA 10021 10021 USA
Citazione:
B.S. McEwen, "Genome and hormones: Gender differences in physiology - Invited review: Estrogens effects on the brain: multiple sites and molecular mechanisms", J APP PHYSL, 91(6), 2001, pp. 2785-2801

Abstract

Besides their well-established actions on reproductive functions, estrogens exert a variety of actions on many regions of the nervous system that influence higher cognitive function, pain mechanisms, fine motor skills, mood,and susceptibility to seizures; they also appear to have neuroprotective actions in relation to stroke damage and Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen actions are now recognized to occur via two different intracellular estrogen receptors, ER-alpha and ER-beta, that reside in the cell nuclei of some nerve cells, as well as by some less well-characterized mechanisms. In the hippocampus, such nerve cells are sparse in number and yet appear to exert a powerful influence on synapse formation by neurons that do not have high levelsof nuclear estrogen receptors. However, we also find nonnuclear estrogen receptors outside of the cell nuclei in dendrites, presynaptic terminals, and glial cells, where estrogen receptors may couple to second messenger systems to regulate a variety of cellular events and signal to the nuclear via transcriptional regulators such as CREB. Sex differences exist in many of the actions of estrogens in the brain, and the process of sexual differentiation appears to affect many brain regions outside of the traditional brain areas involved in reproductive functions. Finally, the aging brain is responsive to actions of estrogens, which have neuroprotective effects both in vivo and in vitro. However, in an animal model, the actions of estrogens on the hippocampus appear to be somewhat attenuated with age. In the future, estrogen actions over puberty and in pregnancy and lactation should be further explored and should be studied in both the hypothalamus and the extrahypothalamic regions.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 20/01/20 alle ore 16:11:02