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Titolo:
Iron deficiency associated with higher blood lead in children living in contaminated environments
Autore:
Bradman, A; Eskenazi, B; Sutton, P; Athanasoulis, M; Goldman, LR;
Indirizzi:
Univ Calif Berkeley, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Childrens Environm Hlth Res, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Univ Calif Berkeley Berkeley CA USA 94720 lth Res, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Calif Dept Hlth Serv, Div Environm & Occupat Dis Control, Berkeley, CA USACalif Dept Hlth Serv Berkeley CA USA cupat Dis Control, Berkeley, CA USA Univ Calif Berkeley, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Childrens Environm Hlth Res, Dept Epidemiol, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Univ Calif Berkeley Berkeley CA USA 94720 idemiol, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Univ Calif Berkeley, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Childrens Environm Hlth Res, Dept Maternal & Child Hlth, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Univ Calif Berkeley BerkeleyCA USA 94720 ld Hlth, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Hyg & Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth Sci, Baltimore, MD USA Johns Hopkins Univ Baltimore MD USA Environm Hlth Sci, Baltimore, MD USA
Titolo Testata:
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES
fascicolo: 10, volume: 109, anno: 2001,
pagine: 1079 - 1084
SICI:
0091-6765(200110)109:10<1079:IDAWHB>2.0.ZU;2-I
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY; PRESCHOOL-CHILDREN; NATIONAL-HEALTH; ERYTHROCYTE PROTOPORPHYRIN; DEVELOPMENTAL-CHANGES; UNITED-STATES; ABSORPTION; CALCIUM; INFANTS; AGE;
Keywords:
children; environmental exposure; epidemiology; iron deficiency; lead poisoning;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Agriculture,Biology & Environmental Sciences
Life Sciences
Citazioni:
67
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Bradman, A Univ Calif Berkeley, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Childrens Environm HlthRes, 2150 Shattuck Ave,Suite 600, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Univ Calif Berkeley 2150 Shattuck Ave,Suite 600 Berkeley CA USA 94720
Citazione:
A. Bradman et al., "Iron deficiency associated with higher blood lead in children living in contaminated environments", ENVIR H PER, 109(10), 2001, pp. 1079-1084

Abstract

The evidence that iron deficiency increases lead child exposure is based primarily on animal data and limited human studies, and some of this evidence is contradictory. No studies of iron status and blood lead levels in children have accounted for environmental lead contamination and, therefore, the source of their exposure. Thus, no studies have directly determined whether iron deficiency modifies the relationship of environmental lead and blood lead. In this study, we compared blood lead levels of iron-deficient and iron-replete children living in low, medium, or highly contaminated environments. Measurements of lead in paint, soil, dust, and blood, age of housing, and iron status were collected from 319 children ages 1-5. We developed two lead exposure factors to summarize the correlated exposure variables: Factor 1 summarized all environmental measures, and Factor 2 was weighted forlead loading of house dust. The geometric mean blood lead level was 4.9 mug/dL; 14% exceeded 10 mug/dL. Many of the children were iron deficient (24%with ferritin < 12 ng/dL). Seventeen percent of soil leads exceeded 500 mug/g, and 23% and 63% of interior and exterior paint samples exceeded 5,000 mug/g. The unadjusted geometric mean blood lead level for iron-deficient children was higher by 1 mug/dL; this difference was greater (1.8 mug/dL) after excluding Asians. Blood lead levels were higher for iron-deficient children for each tertile of exposure as estimated by Factors 1 and 2 for non-Asian children. Elevated blood lead among iron-deficient children persisted after adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate regression; the largest difference in blood lead levels between iron-deficient and -replete children, approximately 3 mug/dL, was among those living in the most contaminated environments. Asian children had a paradoxical association of sufficient iron status and higher blood lead level, which warrants further investigation. Improving iron status, along with reducing exposures, may help reduce blood lead levels among most children, especially those living in the most contaminated environments.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 09/04/20 alle ore 00:31:08