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Titolo:
Effects of caffeine, caffeine-associated stimuli, and caffeine-related information on physiological and psychological arousal
Autore:
Mikalsen, A; Bertelsen, B; Flaten, MA;
Indirizzi:
Univ Tromso, Dept Psychol, SV Fak, N-9037 Tromso, Norway Univ Tromso Tromso Norway N-9037 Psychol, SV Fak, N-9037 Tromso, Norway
Titolo Testata:
PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
fascicolo: 4, volume: 157, anno: 2001,
pagine: 373 - 380
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
PLACEBO ANALGESIA; STARTLE REFLEX; EXPECTANCY; RESPONSES; PERFORMANCE; MODIFY; MODEL;
Keywords:
placebo response; caffeine; classical conditioning; expectancy; startle; arousal;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Life Sciences
Citazioni:
33
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Flaten, MA Univ Tromso, Dept Psychol, SV Fak, N-9037 Tromso, Norway Univ Tromso Tromso Norway N-9037 V Fak, N-9037 Tromso, Norway
Citazione:
A. Mikalsen et al., "Effects of caffeine, caffeine-associated stimuli, and caffeine-related information on physiological and psychological arousal", PSYCHOPHAR, 157(4), 2001, pp. 373-380

Abstract

Rationale: To test the classical conditioning and expectancy theories of placebo effects. Objective: Two experiments investigated whether administration of caffeine-associated stimuli elicited conditioned arousal, and whether information that a drink contained or did not contain caffeine modulated arousal. Method: Experiment 1 (n=21) used a 2 Caffeine (0 and 2 mg/kg) x 2 Solution (Coffee, Juice) x 2 Information (Told caffeine, Told not-caffeine)within-subjects design. Experiment 2 (n=48) used a 2 Solution (Coffee, Orange juice) x 3 Information (Told caffeine, Told not-caffeine, No information) between-subjects design. Indexes of arousal were skin conductance responses and levels, startle eyeblink reflexes, cardiovascular measures, and theBond and Lader 1974 mood scale. Results: Caffeine-associated stimuli increased alertness, contentedness and skin conductance levels, and information that the drink contained caffeine decreased calmness in Experiment 1. However, unexpected information about the caffeine content of the drink, and theorder of the conditions, could have masked some effects of the experimental manipulations. Experiment 2 followed up this hypothesis. The results showed a conditioned increase in startle eyeblink reflexes, and that caffeine-associated stimuli together with information that the drink contained caffeine increased contentedness. Conclusions: Caffeine-associated stimuli increased arousal, and information about the content of the drink modulated arousal in the direction indicated by the information. Thus, both the classical conditioning and expectancy theories of placebo effects received support, and placebo effects were strongest when both conditioned responses and expectancy-based responses acted in the same direction.

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Documento generato il 20/01/20 alle ore 07:30:44