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Titolo:
Phylogenetic aspects of the complement system
Autore:
Zarkadis, IK; Mastellos, D; Lambris, JD;
Indirizzi:
Univ Patras, Dept Biol, Sch Med, Patras 26500, Greece Univ Patras PatrasGreece 26500 Dept Biol, Sch Med, Patras 26500, Greece Univ Penn, Dept Pathol & Lab Chem, Prot Chem Lab, Stellar Chance Labs 402,Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA Univ Penn Philadelphia PA USA 19104 e Labs 402,Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
Titolo Testata:
DEVELOPMENTAL AND COMPARATIVE IMMUNOLOGY
fascicolo: 8-9, volume: 25, anno: 2001,
pagine: 745 - 762
SICI:
0145-305X(200110/12)25:8-9<745:PAOTCS>2.0.ZU;2-M
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
CARP CYPRINUS-CARPIO; TROUT SALVELINUS-FONTINALIS; JAPANESE MEDAKA FISH; PROTEIN-LIKE CDNA; RCA GENE-CLUSTER; MOLECULAR-CLONING; 3RD COMPONENT; HALOCYNTHIA-RORETZI; SERINE-PROTEASE; NURSE SHARK;
Keywords:
complement; evolution; innate; diversity; deuterostomes; teleosts; C3;
Tipo documento:
Review
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Agriculture,Biology & Environmental Sciences
Life Sciences
Citazioni:
115
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Zarkadis, IK Univ Patras, Dept Biol, Sch Med, Patras 26500, Greece Univ Patras Patras Greece 26500 h Med, Patras 26500, Greece
Citazione:
I.K. Zarkadis et al., "Phylogenetic aspects of the complement system", DEV COMP IM, 25(8-9), 2001, pp. 745-762

Abstract

During evolution two general systems of immunity have emerged: innate or, natural immunity and adaptive (acquired), or specific immunity. The innate system is phylogenetically older and is found in some form in all multicellular organisms, whereas the adaptive system appeared about 450 million years ago and is found in all vertebrates except jawless fish. The complement system in higher vertebrates plays an important role as an effector of both the innate and the acquired immune response, and also participates in various immunoregulatory processes. In lower vertebrates complement is activatedby the alternative and lectin pathways and is primarily involved in the opsonization of foreign material. The Agnatha (the most primitive vertebrate species) possess the alternative and lectin pathways while cartilaginous fish are the first species in which the classical pathway appears following the emergence of immunoglobulins. The rest of the poikilothermic species, ranging from teleosts to reptilians, appear to contain a well-developed complement system resembling that of the homeothermic vertebrates. It seems thatmost of the complement components have appeared after the duplication of primordial genes encoding C3/C4/C5, fB/C2, Cls/Clr/MASP-1/MASP-2, and C6/C7/C8/C9 molecules, in a process that led to the formation of distinct activation pathways. However, unlike homeotherms, several species of poikilotherms(e.g. trout) have recently been shown to possess multiple forms of complement components (C3, factor B) that are structurally and functionally more diverse than those of higher vertebrates. We hypothesize that this remarkable diversity has allowed these animals to expand their innate capacity for immune recognition and response. Recent studies have also indicated the possible presence of complement receptors in protochordates and lower vertebrates. In conclusion, there is considerable evidence suggesting that the complement system is present in the entire lineage of deuterostomes, and regulatory complement components have been identified in all species beyond the protochordates, indicating that the mechanisms of complement activation and regulation have developed in parallel. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 04/04/20 alle ore 02:40:42