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Titolo:
Factors associated with toilet training in the 1990s
Autore:
Schum, TR; McAuliffe, TL; Simms, MD; Walter, JA; Lewis, M; Pupp, R;
Indirizzi:
Med Coll Wisconsin, Dept Pediat, Milwaukee, WI 53226 USA Med Coll Wisconsin Milwaukee WI USA 53226 Pediat, Milwaukee, WI 53226 USA Med Coll Wisconsin, Div Biostat, Milwaukee, WI 53226 USA Med Coll Wisconsin Milwaukee WI USA 53226 iostat, Milwaukee, WI 53226 USA Kimberly Clark Inc, Neenah, WI USA Kimberly Clark Inc Neenah WI USAKimberly Clark Inc, Neenah, WI USA Childynam LLC, Wauwatosa, WI USA Childynam LLC Wauwatosa WI USAChildynam LLC, Wauwatosa, WI USA
Titolo Testata:
AMBULATORY PEDIATRICS
fascicolo: 2, volume: 1, anno: 2001,
pagine: 79 - 86
SICI:
1530-1567(200103/04)1:2<79:FAWTTI>2.0.ZU;2-T
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
CHILDREN; TEMPERAMENT; REFUSAL; STOOL; OLD;
Keywords:
child development; day care; gender; maternal employment; race; temperament; toilet training;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Clinical Medicine
Citazioni:
22
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Schum, TR Downtown Hlth Ctr, 1020 North 12th St, Milwaukee, WI 53233 USA Downtown Hlth Ctr 1020 North 12th St Milwaukee WI USA 53233 USA
Citazione:
T.R. Schum et al., "Factors associated with toilet training in the 1990s", AMBU PEDIAT, 1(2), 2001, pp. 79-86

Abstract

Context.-Few studies have systematically evaluated the factors influencingtoilet training in children with normal development. Objectives.-To determine those child, parent, and environmental factors associated with toilet training completion, focusing on the influence of the child's temperament and development. Design and Setting.-Cross-sectional descriptive study of normal children, ages 15-42 months, attending 1 of 4 pediatric clinics in Milwaukee in 1995 and 1996. Methods.-Demographics for child, parents, and household were surveyed. Temperament was assessed using the Toddler Temperament Scale and the Behavioral Style Questionnaire. Child development was measured using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Main Outcome Measure.-Toilet training status was by parental report and was categorized as not trained, not currently training, in training, or training complete. Results.-The study population included 496 children, comprising 219 that had not started training, 70 that were not currently training, 148 that werein training, and 59 that were completely trained. The ages at which 50% ofthe children were predicted to be toilet trained were 35 and 39 months forgirls and boys, respectively. In the multivariate regression model, statistically significant factors best predicting toilet training completion wereolder age, non-Caucasian race, female gender, and single parenthood. Temperament, development, maternal employment, or use of day care were not statistically significant factors. Conclusion.-Innate factors such as older age, non-Caucasian race, and female gender are the best predictors of completing toilet training (rather than a child's temperament and developmental stage). Day care and maternal employment appear to be unimportant variables. Parents should not be discouraged, because children are completing toilet training at older ages. Researchis needed to discover why single parents are more successful at toilet training.

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Documento generato il 18/01/20 alle ore 07:21:30