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Titolo:
Endocrine disrupters - testing strategies to assess human hazard
Autore:
Baker, VA;
Indirizzi:
Unilever Res, Colworth House, SEAC Toxicol Unit, Sharnbrook MK44 1LQ, Beds, England Unilever Res Sharnbrook Beds England MK44 1LQ ook MK44 1LQ, Beds, England
Titolo Testata:
TOXICOLOGY IN VITRO
fascicolo: 4-5, volume: 15, anno: 2001,
pagine: 413 - 419
SICI:
0887-2333(200108/10)15:4-5<413:ED-TST>2.0.ZU;2-8
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
E-SCREEN ASSAY; IN-VITRO; BREAST-CANCER; CELL-LINES; CHEMICALS; ESTROGENS; VIVO; PROLIFERATION; RECEPTOR; CRYPTORCHIDISM;
Keywords:
endocrine disruption; oestrogen; in vitro; receptor binding assay; reporter gene assay; cell proliferation assay;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Life Sciences
Citazioni:
48
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Baker, VA Unilever Res, Colworth House, SEAC Toxicol Unit, Sharnbrook MK441LQ, Beds, England Unilever Res Sharnbrook Beds England MK44 1LQ LQ, Beds, England
Citazione:
V.A. Baker, "Endocrine disrupters - testing strategies to assess human hazard", TOX VITRO, 15(4-5), 2001, pp. 413-419

Abstract

During the last decade an hypothesis has been developed linking certain chemicals (natural and synthetic) to observed and suspected adverse effects on reproduction in both wildlife and humans. The issue of 'endocrine disruption' originally focused on chemicals that mimic the action of the natural hormone oestrogen. However, the concern is now encompassing effects on the whole endocrine system. In response to public awareness, regulatory agencies(including the US EPA) and the OECD are formulating potential testing strategies and have begun the process of validating defined tests to systematically assess chemicals for their endocrine-disrupting activities. In order to investigate chemicals that have the potential to cause endocrine disruption, a large number of in vitro and in vivo assays have been identified. In vitro test systems (particularly when used in combination) offer the possibility of providing an early screen for large numbers of chemicals and can be useful in characterising the mechanism of action and potency. In vitro assays in widespread use for the screening/characterisation of endocrine disrupting potential include hormone receptor ligand binding assays (determination of the ability of a chemical to bind to the hormone receptor), cell proliferation assays (analysis of the ability of a chemical to stimulate growth of oestrogen sensitive cells), reporter gene assays in yeast or mammaliancells (analysis of the ability of a chemical to stimulate the transcription of a reporter gene construct in cell culture), and the analysis of the regulation of endogenous oestrogen sensitive genes in cell lines. However, invitro assays do not always reliably predict the outcome in vivo due to differences in metabolic capabilities of the test systems used and the diverserange of mechanisms by which endocrine disrupting chemicals may act. Therefore a complementary battery of short- and long-term in vitro and in vivo assays (that assess both receptor and non-receptor mediated mechanisms of action) seems the most appropriate way at present of assessing the potential endocrine disrupting activities of chemicals. At Unilever we have used a combination of in vitro assays (receptor binding, reporter gene and cell proliferation assays) together with short-term in vivo tests (uterotrophic assay in immature rodents) to examine the oestrogenic potential of a large number of chemicals. An evaluation of the advantages and limitations of these methods is provided. Finally, any potential test system needs to be validated and standardized before the information generated can be for the identification of hazard, and possibly for risk assessment purposes. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 25/01/20 alle ore 06:20:42