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Titolo:
Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators during early human development
Autore:
Herlenius, E; Lagercrantz, H;
Indirizzi:
Karolinska Inst, Astrid Lindgren Childrens Hosp, Dept Women & Child Hlth, Neonatal Unit, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden Karolinska Inst Stockholm SwedenS-17176 Unit, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden
Titolo Testata:
EARLY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
fascicolo: 1, volume: 65, anno: 2001,
pagine: 21 - 37
SICI:
0378-3782(200110)65:1<21:NANDEH>2.0.ZU;2-V
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
MOUSE FETAL DEVELOPMENT; HUMAN SPINAL-CORD; RAT BRAIN-STEM; IMMUNOREACTIVE NEURONS; POSTNATAL-DEVELOPMENT; TYROSINE-HYDROXYLASE; IN-VITRO; C-FOS; RECEPTOR; NMDA;
Keywords:
neurotransmitters; neuromodulators; early human development;
Tipo documento:
Review
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Clinical Medicine
Citazioni:
64
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Lagercrantz, H Karolinska Inst, Astrid Lindgren Childrens Hosp, Dept Women& Child Hlth, Neonatal Unit, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden Karolinska Inst Stockholm Sweden S-17176 tockholm, Sweden
Citazione:
E. Herlenius e H. Lagercrantz, "Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators during early human development", EAR HUM DEV, 65(1), 2001, pp. 21-37

Abstract

Background: Neurotransmitters such as monoamines appear in the embryo before the neurones are differentiated. They may have other functions than neurotransmission during embryogenesis such as differentiation and neuronal growth. For example, serotonin may act as a morphogen. A number of neuropeptides are expressed during ontogenesis, but their function has been difficult to establish. Maybe some of them remain as evolutionary residues. Fast-switching neuro transmitters like the excitatory amino acids and the more ionotropic receptors dominate in the human brain, but appear probably later during evolution as well as during ontogeny. Methods: The distribution of catecholamines during development has been analysed with a fluorescense method, while most of the other neuortransmitters have been mapped with immunohistochemical methods. The classical method to determine the physiological role of a neurotransmitter or modulator is to study the physiological effect of its antagonist, blocking the endogenous activity. By transgenic technique. the genes encoding for enzymes involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters can be knocked-out. Major findings: Pharmacological blocking of endogenous activity has, for example, demonstrated that adenosine suppresses fetal respiration. Knocking out the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene results in fetal death, suggesting that noradrenaline is essential for survival. Some neurotransmitters change their effect during embryogenesis, e.g. GABA which isexcitatory in the embryo, but inhibitory after birth due to a switch from a high to low chloride content in the nerve cells. It is possible that thisis of importance for the wiring of neuronal network in early life. NMDA receptors dominate in the foetus, while kainate and AMPA receptors appear later. At birth, there is a surge of neurotransmitters such as catecholamines,which may be of importance for the neonatal adaptation. Conclusions: Neurotransmitters and modulators are not only important for the neural trafficking in the embryo, but also for the development of the neuronal circuits. Prenatal or neonatal stress (hypoxia), as well as various drugs, may disturb the wiring and cause long-term behavioural effects (fetal and neonatal programming). (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 22/01/20 alle ore 13:00:52