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Titolo:
Neurobiology of autism: An update
Autore:
Weidenheim, KM;
Indirizzi:
Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Pathol & Neurol, Bronx, NY 10467 USA AlbertEinstein Coll Med Bronx NY USA 10467 & Neurol, Bronx, NY 10467 USA Montefiore Med Ctr, Dept Pathol & Neurol, Bronx, NY 10467 USA Montefiore Med Ctr Bronx NY USA 10467 athol & Neurol, Bronx, NY 10467 USA
Titolo Testata:
SALUD MENTAL
fascicolo: 3, volume: 24, anno: 2001,
pagine: 3 - 9
SICI:
0185-3325(200106)24:3<3:NOAAU>2.0.ZU;2-U
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
SEVERE MENTAL-RETARDATION; EARLY INFANTILE-AUTISM; CHILDHOOD AUTISM; POSTERIOR-FOSSA; RETT-SYNDROME; CELL COUNTS; BRAIN; CHILDREN; ABNORMALITIES; HIPPOCAMPUS;
Keywords:
autism; Asperger's syndrome; Rett disorder;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Social & Behavioral Sciences
Citazioni:
74
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Weidenheim, KM Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Pathol & Neurol, Bronx, NY 10467 USA Albert Einstein Coll Med Bronx NY USA 10467 , NY 10467 USA
Citazione:
K.M. Weidenheim, "Neurobiology of autism: An update", SALUD MENT, 24(3), 2001, pp. 3-9

Abstract

Consideration of available studies suggest, that many cases of autism caused by a neurodevelopmental disorder. In other cases, a known disease entityis found, either during life or at autopsy. A common factor linking primary idiopathic autism with double syndrome cases having autistic behavior maybe malfunction in specific neuroanatomic systems, defects in which give rise to the clinically defined autistic symptomatology. The available evidence suggests that the limbic system is abnormal in most cases of autism, and that the hippocampus, basal forebrain, cingulate and orbitofrontal corticesare specifically involved. Evidence for neocortical involvement is less strong; additional investigations will be necessary to define the role of neocortical pathology observed in some, but not all, individuals with autism. Similarly, the role of the thalamus and hypothalamus and their subdivisionsneeds to be better defined. The role of the cerebellum in the causation ofautistic symptoms is controversial. However, the consistency of the findings; of the Boston group suggest that additional study, especially studies focused on the connections of the cerebellum to thc diencephalic and telencephalic structures, is warranted. The evidence, then, suggests that autism is a disorder of connectivity, often but not exclusively arising during the gestational period and ongoing degeneration of involved neural systems may occur in some individuals. Sincedifferent investigators, who study different populations Of autistic individuals, have found involvement of multiple neuroanatomic sites, neural network(s) may be involved in pathogenesis of this complex behavior. A defect at any point in the network could produce autistic behavior, and differencesin the specific network defect between individuals might account for observed differences in clinical phenotype. The recent identification OF abnormalities in serotonin synthesis in autistic individuals suggests that serotonergic systems are likely involved (23). However, the complexity of the brain's circuitry, especially in the limbic system (56), and the presence Of multiple neurotransmitters in any given anatomic site in the brain, suggests that investigations of additional neurotransmitter systems might be useful as well. While autism is now accepted to be an intrinsic disorder of the brain, much additional work needs to be done to elucidate the precise biochemical andphysiologic defects that lead to the observed pathologic changes, Application of basic neuroscience Methods to clinical material will hopefully elucidate the pathogenesis of this disorder anti lead to effective therapy.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 20/01/20 alle ore 22:54:09