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Titolo:
Cuticular penetration of calcium salts: effects of humidity, anions, and adjuvants
Autore:
Schonherr, J;
Indirizzi:
Univ Hannover, Inst Vegetable & Fruit Sci, D-31157 Sarstedt, Germany Univ Hannover Sarstedt Germany D-31157 it Sci, D-31157 Sarstedt, Germany
Titolo Testata:
JOURNAL OF PLANT NUTRITION AND SOIL SCIENCE-ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PFLANZENERNAHRUNG UND BODENKUNDE
fascicolo: 2, volume: 164, anno: 2001,
pagine: 225 - 231
SICI:
1436-8730(200104)164:2<225:CPOCSE>2.0.ZU;2-6
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
MONODISPERSE ALCOHOL ETHOXYLATES; DELICIOUS APPLE FRUIT; PLANT CUTICLES; BITTER PIT; DECAY; PERMEABILITY; INFILTRATION; CHLORIDE; SURFACTANTS; MOBILITY;
Keywords:
bitter pit; calcium salts; cuticular penetration; foliar nutrition; physiological disorders; postharvest diseases;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Agriculture,Biology & Environmental Sciences
Citazioni:
37
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Schonherr, J Univ Hannover, Inst Vegetable & Fruit Sci, Steinberg 3, D-31157 Sarstedt, Germany Univ Hannover Steinberg 3 Sarstedt Germany D-31157 , Germany
Citazione:
J. Schonherr, "Cuticular penetration of calcium salts: effects of humidity, anions, and adjuvants", J PLANT NU, 164(2), 2001, pp. 225-231

Abstract

Physical laws of cuticular penetration of calcium salts have been studied using astomatous isolated pear (Pyrus communis L.) leaf cuticular membranes(CM). Penetration followed first order kinetics and was greatly affected by humidity, hygroscopicity, solubility of salts, and nature of adjuvants. Penetration required dissolution of the salts and this is determined by their point of deliquescence (POD). POD corresponds to the humidity over a saturated salt solution containing undissolved salt. When humidity was above POD the salt residue on the cuticle dissolved, while below a solid residue was formed and penetration ceased. CaCl2 and Ca(NO3)(2) have POD's of 32 and 55%, respectively, while POD's of organic calcium salts (acetate, lactate, propionate) were between 95 and 100%. Furthermore, aqueous solubility of the inorganic calcium salts is one to two orders of magnitude higher than that of the organic salts. Thus, organic calcium salts are not well suited forfoliar nutrition since POD's are very high and driving forces of penetration are low due to low solubility even at 100% humidity. CaCl2 and Ca(NO3)(2) penetrate even at low humidity and solubility is much higher. When humidity was above the POD, rate constants of penetration increased with increasing humidity by about a factor of three and maximum rates were measured at 100%. Temperature did not affect rate constants of penetration from which itcan be concluded that penetration is most rapid during the night when humidity is high. All salts should be used with an effective wetter as with an alkyl polyglucoside half time of penetration was decreased from 204 to 17 h. All other adjuvants tested (protein hydrolysates, EDTA, gum guar) decreased rate constants of penetration by factors of 3 to 9. This finding is discussed in relation to mixing foliar nutrients with fungizides.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 31/03/20 alle ore 14:28:30