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Titolo:
Corticosteroids in relation to fear, anxiety and psychopathology
Autore:
Korte, SM;
Indirizzi:
ID Lelystad, Inst Anim Sci & Hlth BV, NL-8200 AB Lelystad, Netherlands ID Lelystad Lelystad Netherlands NL-8200 AB 200 AB Lelystad, Netherlands
Titolo Testata:
NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS
fascicolo: 2, volume: 25, anno: 2001,
pagine: 117 - 142
SICI:
0149-7634(200103)25:2<117:CIRTFA>2.0.ZU;2-O
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING-FACTOR; POSTTRAUMATIC-STRESS-DISORDER; PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS; ELEVATED PLUS-MAZE; RECEPTOR MESSENGER-RNA; CHRONIC PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS; HIPPOCAMPAL GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS; INDUCED BEHAVIORAL-INHIBITION; HIGH ADRENOCORTICAL-RESPONSE; FACTOR-LIKE IMMUNOREACTIVITY;
Keywords:
corticosteroids; glucocorticoid receptor; mineralocorticoid receptor; fear; anxiety; hippocampus; freezing; contextual fear conditioning; fear potentiation; fear extinction; consolidation; porsolt swim test; passive avoidance test; elevated plus-maze test; feed-forward; stress-sensitization; CRF; noradrenaline; serotonin; psychopathology; depression; animal welfare;
Tipo documento:
Review
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Life Sciences
Citazioni:
291
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Korte, SM ID Lelystad, Inst Anim Sci & Hlth BV, Edelhertweg 15,POB 65, NL-8200 AB Lelystad, Netherlands ID Lelystad Edelhertweg 15,POB 65 Lelystad Netherlands NL-8200 AB
Citazione:
S.M. Korte, "Corticosteroids in relation to fear, anxiety and psychopathology", NEUROSCI B, 25(2), 2001, pp. 117-142

Abstract

Corticosteroids play extremely important roles in fear and anxiety. The mechanisms by which corticosteroids exert their effects on behavior are oftenindirect, because, although corticosteroids do not regulate behavior, theyinduce chemical changes in particular sets of neurons making certain behavioral outcomes more likely in certain contexts as a result of the strengthening or weakening of particular neural pathways. The timing of corticosteroid increase (before, during or after exposure to a stressor) determines whether and how behavior is affected. The present review shows that different aspects of fear and anxiety are affected differentially by the occupation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) at different phases of the stress response. Corticosteroids, at low circulating levels, exert a permissive action via brain MRs on the mediation of acute freezing behavior and acute fear-related plus-maze behavior. Corticosteroids, at high circulating levels, enhance acquisition, conditioning and consolidation of an inescapable stressful experience via GR-mechanisms. Brain GR-occupation also promotes processes underlying fear potentiation. Fear potentiation can be seen as an adjustment in anticipation of changing demands. However, such feed-forward regulation may be particularly vulnerable to dysfunction. MR and/or GR mechansisms are involved in fear extinction. Brain MRsmay be involved in the extinction of passive avoidance, and GRs may be involved in mediating the extinction of active avoidance. In the developing brain, corticosteroids play a facilitatory role in the ontogeny of freezing behavior, probably via GRs in the dorsal hippocampus, and their influence onthe development of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic system. Corticosteroids can exert maladaptive rather than adaptive effects when their actions via MRs and GRs are chronically unbalanced due to chronic stress. Both mentalhealth of humans and animal welfare is likely to be seriously threatened after psychosocial stress, prolonged stress, prenatal stress or postnatal stress, especially when maternal care or social support is absent, because these can chronically dysregulate the central MR/GR balance. In such circumstances the normally adaptive corticosteroid responses can become maladaptive. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 14/12/18 alle ore 00:31:30