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Titolo:
Biotransformation enzymes as determinants of xenobiotic toxicity in domestic animals
Autore:
Nebbia, C;
Indirizzi:
Univ Turin, Dept Anim Pathol, Div Pharmacol & Toxicol, I-10095 Grugliasco,Italy Univ Turin Grugliasco Italy I-10095 & Toxicol, I-10095 Grugliasco,Italy
Titolo Testata:
VETERINARY JOURNAL
fascicolo: 3, volume: 161, anno: 2001,
pagine: 238 - 252
SICI:
1090-0233(200105)161:3<238:BEADOX>2.0.ZU;2-#
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
ACUTE-PHASE RESPONSE; DRUG-METABOLIZING-ENZYMES; IN-VITRO; LIVER CYTOCHROME-P-450; TRIPHENYLTIN ACETATE; SPECIES-DIFFERENCES; MICROSOMAL-ENZYMES; PULMONARY TOXICITY; VETERINARY DRUGS; PLASMA-CLEARANCE;
Keywords:
biotransformation enzymes; bioactivation; detoxification; domestic animals; xenobiotics;
Tipo documento:
Review
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Agriculture,Biology & Environmental Sciences
Citazioni:
135
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Nebbia, C Univ Turin, Dept Anim Pathol, Div Pharmacol & Toxicol, Via Leonardo da Vinci 41, I-10095 Grugliasco, Italy Univ Turin Via Leonardo da Vinci41 Grugliasco Italy I-10095 ly
Citazione:
C. Nebbia, "Biotransformation enzymes as determinants of xenobiotic toxicity in domestic animals", VET J, 161(3), 2001, pp. 238-252

Abstract

After coming in contact with living organisms, the majority of foreign compounds undergo a number of chemical reactions known as biotransformations. These are performed by hepatic and extra-hepatic enzyme Systems and usuallyyield more polar derivatives, referred to as 'metabolites', which may leave the body via the urinary and biliary routes or be excreted in animal products such as milk and eggs. Biotransformation does not always imply detoxification because in certain instances metabolites will be produced that are capable of reacting with tissue macromolecules or acquiring toxic properties different to or greater than those of the parent molecule. In this review, which is focused on domestic animals, the role played by oxidative, reductive, hydrolytic and conjugative biotransformation enzymes in the activation/detoxification of xenobiotics is examined. The relationship between extra-hepatic metabolism and target organ toxicity as well as theaction of rumen microflora on feed additives, phytotoxins, and pesticides are then discussed. Some of the most important metabolic-based species-related susceptibilities to different poisons, and the influence of enzyme inducers or inhibitors on xenobiotic toxicity and drug safety are also reviewed. (C) 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 02/04/20 alle ore 22:23:45