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Titolo:
Deer-predator relationships: a review of recent North American studies with emphasis on mule and black-tailed deer
Autore:
Ballard, WB; Lutz, D; Keegan, TW; Carpenter, LH; deVos, JC;
Indirizzi:
Texas Tech Univ, Dept Range Wildlife & Fisheries Management, Lubbock, TX 79409 USA Texas Tech Univ Lubbock TX USA 79409 es Management, Lubbock, TX 79409 USA Wyoming Game & Fish Dept, Casper, WY 82604 USA Wyoming Game & Fish Dept Casper WY USA 82604 h Dept, Casper, WY 82604 USA Oregon Dept Fish & Wildlife, Portland, OR 97207 USA Oregon Dept Fish & Wildlife Portland OR USA 97207 Portland, OR 97207 USA Wildlife Management Inst, Ft Collins, CO 80526 USA Wildlife Management Inst Ft Collins CO USA 80526 Ft Collins, CO 80526 USA Arizona Game & Fish Dept, Res Branch, Phoenix, AZ 85023 USA Arizona Game &Fish Dept Phoenix AZ USA 85023 anch, Phoenix, AZ 85023 USA
Titolo Testata:
WILDLIFE SOCIETY BULLETIN
fascicolo: 1, volume: 29, anno: 2001,
pagine: 99 - 115
SICI:
0091-7648(200121)29:1<99:DRAROR>2.0.ZU;2-H
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
CAUSE-SPECIFIC MORTALITY; HERD CASE-HISTORY; WOLF PREDATION; NORTHEASTERN MINNESOTA; FAWN SURVIVAL; NEW-BRUNSWICK; SOUTH TEXAS; MOOSE; CARIBOU; POPULATIONS;
Keywords:
black-tailed deer; carrying capacity; coyote; mountain lion; mule deer; population management; predation management; predators; wolf;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Agriculture,Biology & Environmental Sciences
Citazioni:
89
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Ballard, WB Texas Tech Univ, Dept Range Wildlife & Fisheries Management, Box 42125, Lubbock, TX 79409 USA Texas Tech Univ Box 42125 Lubbock TX USA 79409 k, TX 79409 USA
Citazione:
W.B. Ballard et al., "Deer-predator relationships: a review of recent North American studies with emphasis on mule and black-tailed deer", WILDL SOC B, 29(1), 2001, pp. 99-115

Abstract

In recent years mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and black-tailed (O. h. columbianus) deer appear to have declined in many areas of the western United States and Canada, causing concern for population welfare and continued uses ofthe deer resource. Causes of the decline have not been identified, but predation by coyotes (Canis latrans), mountain lions (Puma concolor), and wolves (Canis lupus) has been proposed as one of many factors. We reviewed results of published studies conducted since the mid-1970s concerning predator-deer relationships to determine whether predation could bea factor in the apparent deer population declines and whether there was evidence that predator control could be a viable management tool to restore deer populations. We reviewed 17 published studies concerning mule deer. We found only 4 published studies of the effects of predation on black-tailed deer. A larger database existed for white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), with 19 studies examining effects of predation on white-tailed deer. Study results were confounded by numerous factors. A deer population's relationship to habitat carrying capacity was crucial to the impacts of predation. Deer populations at or near carrying capacity did not respond to predator removal experiments. When deer populations appeared limited by predation and such populations were well below forage carrying capacity, deer mortality was reduced significantly when predator populations were reduced. Onlyone study, however, demonstrated that deer population increases resulted in greater harvests, although considerable data indicated that wolf control resulted in greater harvests of moose (Alces alces) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus). The most convincing evidence for deer population increases occurred when small enclosures (2-39 km(2)) were used. Our review suggests that predation by coyotes, mountain lions, or wolves may be a significant mortality factor in some areas under certain conditions. Relation to habitat carrying capacity, weather, human use patterns, number and type of predator species, and habitat alterations all affect predator-prey relationships. Only through intensive radiotelemetry and manipulativestudies can predation be identified as a major limiting factor. When it isidentified, deer managers face crucial decisions. Reductions in predator densities have occurred only on relatively small study areas (2-180 km(2)) where predators were identified as a major limitingfactor and deer populations were well below forage carrying capacity (an important criterion). Thus a problem of scale, methods used to kill predators, benefit:cost ratios, results to hunters, and public acceptance are primary considerations. Methods of predator control available to deer managers have been severely restricted and current methods may not be Feasible over large areas when and if predation becomes a problem. Public acceptance of predator reduction programs is essential for predator-prey management, but may not be achievable given current public attitudes toward predators. We identified several recommendations and research needs based on our review of the literature given current social and political limitations.

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Documento generato il 24/09/20 alle ore 00:49:10