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Titolo:
The neurobiology and evolution of cannabinoid signalling
Autore:
Elphick, MR; Egertova, M;
Indirizzi:
Univ London Queen Mary & Westfield Coll, Sch Biol Sci, London E1 4NS, England Univ London Queen Mary & Westfield Coll London England E1 4NS S, England
Titolo Testata:
PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
fascicolo: 1407, volume: 356, anno: 2001,
pagine: 381 - 408
SICI:
0962-8436(20010329)356:1407<381:TNAEOC>2.0.ZU;2-O
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
LONG-TERM POTENTIATION; ACID AMIDE HYDROLASE; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM; RAT HIPPOCAMPAL SLICE; SEA-URCHIN SPERM; PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR; NITRIC-OXIDE RELEASE; NEURONS IN-VITRO; INHIBIT N-TYPE; CB1 RECEPTOR;
Keywords:
CB1; CB2; anandamide; endocannabinoid; fatty acid amide hydrolase; G-protein-coupled receptor;
Tipo documento:
Review
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Agriculture,Biology & Environmental Sciences
Life Sciences
Citazioni:
165
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Elphick, MR Univ London Queen Mary & Westfield Coll, Sch Biol Sci, Mile End Rd, LondonE1 4NS, England Univ London Queen Mary & Westfield Coll Mile End Rd London England E1 4NS
Citazione:
M.R. Elphick e M. Egertova, "The neurobiology and evolution of cannabinoid signalling", PHI T ROY B, 356(1407), 2001, pp. 381-408

Abstract

The plant Cannabis saliva has been used by humans for thousands of years because of its psychoactivity The major psychoactive ingredient of cannabis is Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, which exerts effects in the brain by binding to a G-protein-coupled receptor known as the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. The discovery of this receptor indicated that endogenous cannabinoids may occur in the brain, which act as physiological ligands for CB1. Two putative endocannabinoid ligands, arachidonylethanolamide ('anandamide') and 2-arachidonylglycerol, have been identified, giving rise to the concept of a cannabinoid signalling system. Little is known about holy or where these compounds are synthesized in the brain and how this relates to CB1 expression. However, detailed neuroanatomical and electrophysiological analysis of mammalian nervous systems has revealed that the CB1 receptor is targeted to the presynaptic terminals of neurons where it acts to inhibit release of 'classical' neurotransmitters. Moreover, an enzyme that inactivates endocannabinoids, fatty acid amide hydrolase, appears to be preferentially target-ed to the somato dendritic compartment of neurons that are postsynaptic to CB1-expressing axon terminals. Based on these findings, we present here a model of cannabinoid signalling in which anandamide is synthesized by post-synaptic cells and acts as a retrograde messenger molecule to modulate neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals. Using this model as a framework, we discuss the role of cannabinoid signalling in different regions of the nervous system in relation to the characteristic physiological actions of cannabinoids in mammals, which include effects on movement, memory pain and smooth muscle contractility. The discovery of the cannabinoid signalling system in mammals has promptedinvestigation of the occurrence of this pathway in non-mammalian animals. Here we review the evidence for the existence of cannabinoid receptors in non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates and discuss the evolution of thecannabinoid signalling system. Genes encoding orthologues of the mammalianCB1 receptor have been identified in a fish, an amphibian and a bird, indicating that CB1 receptors may occur throughout the vertebrates. Pharmacological actions of cannabinoids and specific binding sites for cannabinoids have been reported in several invertebrate species, but the molecular basis for these effects is not known. Importantly, however, the genomes of the protostomian invertebrates Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans do not contain CB1 orthologues, indicating that CB1-like cannabinoid receptors may have evolved after the divergence of deuterostomes (e.g. vertebrates and echinoderms) and protostomes. Phylogenetic analysis of the relationship of vertebrate CB1 receptors with other G-protein-coupled receptors reveals that the paralogues that appear to share the most recent common evolutionary origin with CB1 are lysophospholipid receptors, melanocortin receptorsand adenosine receptors. Interestingly, as with CB1, each of these receptor types does not appear to have Drosophila orthologues, indicating that this group of receptors may not occur in protostomian invertebrates. We conclude that the cannabinoid signalling system may be quite restricted in its phylogenetic distribution, probably occurring only in the deuterostomian clade of the animal kingdom and possible only vertebrates.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 23/01/20 alle ore 12:24:58