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Titolo:
The immunotherapeutic potential of melatonin
Autore:
Maestroni, GJM;
Indirizzi:
Ist Cantonale Patol, Ctr Expt Pathol, CH-6601 Locarno, Switzerland Ist Cantonale Patol Locarno Switzerland CH-6601 601 Locarno, Switzerland
Titolo Testata:
EXPERT OPINION ON INVESTIGATIONAL DRUGS
fascicolo: 3, volume: 10, anno: 2001,
pagine: 467 - 476
SICI:
1354-3784(200103)10:3<467:TIPOM>2.0.ZU;2-X
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE; PINEAL NEUROHORMONE MELATONIN; BLOOD MONONUCLEAR-CELLS; BONE-MARROW; HEMATOPOIETIC RESCUE; HORMONE MELATONIN; IMMUNE-SYSTEM; LYMPHOCYTES; MICE; SHOCK;
Keywords:
cytokines; haemopoiesis; immunodeficiency; melatonin; rheumatoid arthritis; septic shock; T-helper; viral encephalitis;
Tipo documento:
Review
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Life Sciences
Citazioni:
70
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Maestroni, GJM Ist Cantonale Patol, Ctr Expt Pathol, POB, CH-6601 Locarno,Switzerland Ist Cantonale Patol POB Locarno Switzerland CH-6601 erland
Citazione:
G.J.M. Maestroni, "The immunotherapeutic potential of melatonin", EXPERT OP I, 10(3), 2001, pp. 467-476

Abstract

The interaction between the brain and the immune system is essential fur the adaptive response of an organism against environmental challenges. In this context, the pineal neurohormone melatonin (MEL) plays an important role. T-helper cells express G-protein coupled cell membrane MEL receptors and,perhaps. MEL nuclear receptors. Activation of MEL receptors enhances the release of T-helper cell Type 1 (Th1) cytokines, such as gamma -interferon (gamma -IFN) and IL-2. as well as of novel opioid cytokines. MEL has ht en reported also to enhance the production of IL-1, IL-6 and IL-12 in human monocytes. These mediators may counteract stress-induced immunodepression and other secondary immunodeficiences and protect mice against lethal viral encephalitis, bacterial diseases and septic shock. Therefore, MEL has interesting immunotherapeutic potential in both viral and bacterial infections. MELmay also influence haemopoiesis either by stimulating haemopoietic cytokines. including opioids, or by directly affecting specific progenitor cells such as pre-B cells, monocytes and NK cells. MEL may thus be used to stimulate the immune response during viral and bacterial infections as well as to strengthen the immune reactivity as a prophylactic procedure. In both mice and cancer patients, the haemopoietic effect of MEL may diminish the toxicity associated with common chemotherapeutic protocols. Through its pro-inflammatory action. MEL may play an adverse role in autoimmune diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis patients have increased nocturnal plasma levels of MEL and their synovial macrophages respond to MEL with an increased production of IL-12 and nitric oxide (NO). In these patients, inhibition of MEL synthesis or use of MEL antagonists might have a therapeutic effect. In other diseasessuch as multiple sclerosis the role of MEL is controversial. However, the correct therapeutic use of MEL or MEL antagonists should be based on a complete understanding of their mechanism of action. It is not yet clear whether MEL acts only on Th1 cells or also on T-helper Type 2 cells (Th2). This is an important point as the Th1/Th2 balance is of crucial importance in theimmune system homeostasis. Furthermore. MEL being the endocrine messenger of darkness. its endogenous synthesis depends on the photoperiod and shows seasonal variations. Similarly. the pharmacological effects of MEL might also be season-dependent. No information is available concerning this point. Therefore, studies are needed to investigate whether the immunotherapeutic effect of MEL changes with the alternating seasons.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 30/03/20 alle ore 19:43:42