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Titolo:
The effect of initial concentration of carbofuran on the development and stability of its enhanced biodegradation in top-soil and sub-soil
Autore:
Karpouzas, DG; Walker, A; Drennan, DSH; Froud-Williams, RJ;
Indirizzi:
Hort Res Int, Dept Soil & Environm Sci, Warwick CV35 9EF, England Hort ResInt Warwick England CV35 9EF onm Sci, Warwick CV35 9EF, England Univ Reading, Dept Agr Bot, Reading RG6 6AS, Berks, England Univ Reading Reading Berks England RG6 6AS eading RG6 6AS, Berks, England
Titolo Testata:
PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE
fascicolo: 1, volume: 57, anno: 2001,
pagine: 72 - 81
SICI:
1526-498X(200101)57:1<72:TEOICO>2.0.ZU;2-J
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
ACCELERATED DEGRADATION; SUBSURFACE SOILS; UNSATURATED ZONE; PESTICIDES; ATRAZINE; SURFACE; MINERALIZATION; ETHOPROPHOS; EFFICACY; ALDICARB;
Keywords:
enhanced biodegradation; carbofuran; concentration; stability; top-soil; sub-soil;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Agriculture,Biology & Environmental Sciences
Citazioni:
33
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Walker, A Hort Res Int, Dept Soil & Environm Sci, Warwick CV35 9EF, England Hort Res Int Warwick England CV35 9EF arwick CV35 9EF, England
Citazione:
D.G. Karpouzas et al., "The effect of initial concentration of carbofuran on the development and stability of its enhanced biodegradation in top-soil and sub-soil", PEST MAN SC, 57(1), 2001, pp. 72-81

Abstract

Carbofuran was incubated in top-soil and sub-soil samples from a pesticide-free site at a range of initial concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mg kg(-1). Amounts of the incubated soils were removed at intervals over the subsequent12 months, and the rate of degradation of a second carbofuran dose at 10 mg kg(-1) was assessed. An applied concentration as low as 0.1 mg kg(-1) to top-soil resulted in more rapid degradation of the fresh addition of carbofuran for at least 12 months. The degree of enhancement was generally more pronounced with the higher initial concentrations. When the same study was conducted in sub-soil samples from the same site, an initial dose of carbofuran at 0.1 mg kg(-1) resulted in only small increases in rates of degradation of a second carbofuran dose. However, degradation rates in the sub-soil samples were, in many instances, considerably greater than in the corresponding top-soil samples, irrespective of pre-treatment concentration or pre-incubation period. Initial doses of 0.5 mg kg(-1) and higher applied to sub-soil successfully activated the sub-soil microflora. Application of the VARLEACH model to simulate carbofuran movement through the soil profile indicated that approximately 0.01 mg kg(-1) of carbofuran may reach a depth of 70cm 400 days after a standard field application. The results therefore imply that adaptation of the sub-soil microflora (c 1 m depth) by normal field rate applications of carbofuran is unlikely to occur. In experiments to investigate this in soils exposed to carbofuran in the field, there was no apparent relationship between top-soil exposure and degradation rates in the corresponding sub-soils. The results further confirmed that some sub-soil samples have an inherent capacity for rapid biodegradation of carbofuran. Thehigh levels of variability observed between replicates in some of the sub-soil samples were attributed to the uneven distribution of a low populationof carbofuran-degrading micro-organisms in sub-surface soil. There was no apparent relationship between soil microbial biomass and degradation rates within or between top-soil and sub-soil samples. (C) 2001 Society of Chemical Industry.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 25/01/20 alle ore 15:49:24