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Titolo:
Reward deficiency syndrome: A biogenetic model for the diagnosis and treatment of impulsive, addictive, and compulsive behaviors
Autore:
Blum, K; Braverman, ER; Holder, JM; Lubar, JF; Monastra, VJ; Miller, D; Lubar, JO; Chen, TJH; Comings, DE;
Indirizzi:
Univ N Texas, Dept Sci Biol, Denton, TX 76203 USA Univ N Texas Denton TX USA 76203 xas, Dept Sci Biol, Denton, TX 76203 USA PharmcoGenomics, San Antonio, TX USA PharmcoGenomics San Antonio TX USAPharmcoGenomics, San Antonio, TX USA PATH Med Fdn, New York, NY USA PATH Med Fdn New York NY USAPATH Med Fdn, New York, NY USA Amer Coll Addictionol & Compuls Disorders, Miami Beach, FL USA Amer Coll Addictionol & Compuls Disorders Miami Beach FL USA ach, FL USA New York Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, New York, NY USA New York Sch Med New York NY USA ch Med, Dept Psychiat, New York, NY USA Graceland Univ, Dept Addict Studies, Independence, MO USA Graceland Univ Independence MO USA Addict Studies, Independence, MO USA Exodus Israel Bikur Cholim Hosp, Dept Addict Med, Jerusalem, Israel ExodusIsrael Bikur Cholim Hosp Jerusalem Israel Med, Jerusalem, Israel Univ Tennessee, Knoxville, TN USA Univ Tennessee Knoxville TN USAUniv Tennessee, Knoxville, TN USA Family Psychol Inst, Endicott, NY USA Family Psychol Inst Endicott NY USA amily Psychol Inst, Endicott, NY USA Attent Disorders Clin, Endicott, NY USA Attent Disorders Clin Endicott NYUSA t Disorders Clin, Endicott, NY USA SE Biofeedback Inst, Knoxville, TN USA SE Biofeedback Inst Knoxville TN USA Biofeedback Inst, Knoxville, TN USA Chang Jung Christian Univ, Toxicol Res Ctr, Tainan, Taiwan Chang Jung Christian Univ Tainan Taiwan Toxicol Res Ctr, Tainan, Taiwan City Hope Natl Med Ctr, Dept Med Genet, Duarte, CA 91010 USA City Hope Natl Med Ctr Duarte CA USA 91010 ed Genet, Duarte, CA 91010 USA
Titolo Testata:
JOURNAL OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS
, volume: 32, anno: 2000, supplemento:, S
pagine: NIL_3 -
SICI:
0279-1072(200011)32:<NIL_3:RDSABM>2.0.ZU;2-V
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
DOPAMINE-RECEPTOR GENE; EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS; SUBSTANCE USE DISORDER; ALCOHOL-PREFERRING AA; SCANDINAVIAN CHRONIC-ALCOHOLICS; POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY; TYROSINE-HYDROXYLASE GENE; BRAIN ELECTRICAL-ACTIVITY; PITUITARY BETA-ENDORPHIN; CROSS-FOSTERING ANALYSIS;
Keywords:
dopamine D; gene; genetics; impulsive; addictive and compulsive behaviors; neurotransmitters; reward deficiency syndrome;
Tipo documento:
Review
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Social & Behavioral Sciences
Citazioni:
636
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Blum, K Univ N Texas, Dept Sci Biol, Denton, TX 76203 USA Univ N Texas Denton TX USA 76203 t Sci Biol, Denton, TX 76203 USA
Citazione:
K. Blum et al., "Reward deficiency syndrome: A biogenetic model for the diagnosis and treatment of impulsive, addictive, and compulsive behaviors", J PSYCH DR, 32, 2000, pp. NIL_3

Abstract

The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D-2 receptor, has been implicated in reward mechanisms. The net effect of neurotransmitter interaction at the mesolimbic brain region induces "reward" when dopamine (DA) is released from the neuron at the nucleus accumbens and interacts with adopamine D-2 receptor. "The reward cascade" involves the release of serotonin, which in turn at the hypothalmus stimulates enkephalin, which in turn inhibits GABA at the substania nigra, which in turn fine tunes the amount of DA released at the nucleus accumbens or "reward site. " It is well known that under normal conditions in the reward site DA works to maintain our normal drives. In fact, DA has become to be known as the "pleasure molecule" and/or the "antistress molecule. " When DA is released into the synapse, it stimulates a number a DA receptors (D1-D5) which results in increased feelings of well-being and stress reduction. A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the brain reward cascade, which could be caused by certain genetic variants (polygenic), especially in the DA system causing a hypodopaminergic trait, the brain of that person requires aDA fix to feel good. This trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behavior. This is so because alcohol, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, nicotine, and glucose all cause activation and neuronal release of brain DA, which could heal the abnormal cravings. Certainly after ten years of study we could say with confidence that carriers of the DAD2 receptor A1 allele have compromised D-2 receptors. Therefore lack of D2 receptors causes individuals to have a high risk for multiple addictive, impulsive and compulsive behavioral propensities, such as severe alcoholism, cocaine, heroin, marijuana and nicotine use, glucose bingeing, pathological gambling, sex addiction, ADHD, Tourette's Syndrome, autism, chronic violence, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizoid/avoidant cluster, conduct disorder and antisocial behavior. In order to explain the breakdown of the reward cascade due to both multiple genes and environmental stimuli (pleiotropism) and resultant aberrant behaviors, Blumunited this hypodopaminergic trait under the rubric of a reward deficiencysyndrome.

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Documento generato il 25/01/20 alle ore 19:35:57