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Titolo:
Testing problems in J. A. Gray's personality theory: a commentary on Matthews and Gilliland (1999)
Autore:
Corr, PJ;
Indirizzi:
Univ London Goldsmiths Coll, Dept Psychol, London SE14 6NW, England Univ London Goldsmiths Coll London England SE14 6NW on SE14 6NW, England
Titolo Testata:
PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
fascicolo: 2, volume: 30, anno: 2001,
pagine: 333 - 352
SICI:
0191-8869(20010119)30:2<333:TPIJA>2.0.ZU;2-Z
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
STARTLE REFLEX; NOVELTY-SEEKING; REINFORCEMENT SENSITIVITY; INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES; BEHAVIORAL-INHIBITION; AFFECTIVE MODULATION; IMPULSIVE BEHAVIOR; RECEPTOR GENE; PUNISHMENT; DOPAMINE;
Keywords:
behavioural inhibition system (BIS); behavioural approach system (BAS); reinforcement; expectancies; EPQ; impulsivity; anxiety; extraversion; neuroticism;
Tipo documento:
Editorial Material
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Social & Behavioral Sciences
Citazioni:
78
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Corr, PJ Univ London Goldsmiths Coll, Dept Psychol, New Cross, London SE146NW, England Univ London Goldsmiths Coll New Cross London England SE14 6NW nd
Citazione:
P.J. Corr, "Testing problems in J. A. Gray's personality theory: a commentary on Matthews and Gilliland (1999)", PERS INDIV, 30(2), 2001, pp. 333-352

Abstract

In their comparative review of H. J. Eysenck's arousal and J. A. Gray's reinforcement theories of personality, Matthews and Gilliland [(1999) Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 583-626] concluded that "Cognitive constructs may be more appropriate than biological ones for explaining the majority of behaviours, so that explanations of the kind offered by the Eysenck and Gray theories are relevant to a restricted range of phenomena only" (p. 620). In this commentary, I address a number of problems in Gray's account of the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioural Approach System (BAS) that need to be tackled before we can conclude that cognitive accounts of personality should supersede, rather than complement, biologically-based ones. I focus on two broad sets of issues. (1) Practical (operational) problems, that call for further experimental work, relating to: (a) BIS/BAS and conditioning/learning; (b) reinforcement parameters (i.e., defining reward/punishment, reinforcement expectancies, schedules of reward, sources of reinforcement, cues versus feedback); and (c) psychometric measuresof BIS/BAS functioning. (2) The theoretical nature of BIS/BAS effects, that call for an elaboration of Gray's theory. I propose a two-process model that postulates that the BIS and BAS exert two effects: facilitatory, the BIS mediates responses to aversive stimuli, the BAS to appetitive stimuli; and antagonistic, the BIS and BAS impair responses mediated by the alternate reinforcement system. Specific directions for future research are given. I conclude that, in several crucial respects, Gray's reinforcement theory hasyet to be adequately tested; and that closer attention to operational definitions, and the mutual interplay of the BIS and BAS, may enhance its experimental precision. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Documento generato il 23/01/20 alle ore 03:52:38