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Titolo:
Novel neurotransmitters and their neuropsychiatric relevance
Autore:
Snyder, SH; Ferris, CD;
Indirizzi:
Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurosci, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA Johns Hopkins Univ Baltimore MD USA 21205 urosci, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pharmacol & Mol Sci, Baltimore, MD 21205USA Johns Hopkins Univ Baltimore MD USA 21205 Mol Sci, Baltimore, MD 21205USA Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA Johns Hopkins Univ Baltimore MD USA 21205 av Sci, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Div Gastroenterol, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA Johns Hopkins Univ Baltimore MD USA 21205 nterol, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA
Titolo Testata:
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
fascicolo: 11, volume: 157, anno: 2000,
pagine: 1738 - 1751
SICI:
0002-953X(200011)157:11<1738:NNATNR>2.0.ZU;2-O
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE; D-ASPARTIC ACID; LONG-TERM POTENTIATION; OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; DEPENDENT PROTEIN-KINASE; FOCAL CEREBRAL-ISCHEMIA; MALE-MICE LACKING; D-AMINO-ACID; D-SERINE; HEME OXYGENASE-2;
Tipo documento:
Review
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Social & Behavioral Sciences
Clinical Medicine
Life Sciences
Citazioni:
136
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Snyder, SH Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurosci, 725 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA Johns Hopkins Univ 725 N Wolfe St Baltimore MD USA 21205 05 USA
Citazione:
S.H. Snyder e C.D. Ferris, "Novel neurotransmitters and their neuropsychiatric relevance", AM J PSYCHI, 157(11), 2000, pp. 1738-1751

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this review is to integrate insights regarding novel neurotransmitters or neuromodulators of neuropsychiatric significance. Method: Evolving concepts of neurotransmitter criteria are reviewed in light of the unexpected properties displayed by recently identified transmitters. Results: Classic criteria for transmitters were based on the properties ofacetylcholine but were markedly revised with the recognition of the catecholamines, serotonin, gamma -aminobutyric acid (GABA), and other amino acid transmitters and neuropeptides. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide are notably atypical, as they are not stored in synaptic vesicles, are not released by exocytosis, and do not act at postsynaptic membrane receptor proteins. D-Serine, recently appreciated as the endogenous ligand for the glycine site of the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, overturns fundamental axioms of biology as well as those of neuroscience. It is a D-amino acid,and it is synthesized and stored in glia rather than neurons. Released glutamate acts on receptors on the protoplasmic astrocytes closely apposed to the synapse to release L-serine, which coactivates postsynaptic NMDA receptors together with glutamate. D-Serine is formed by serine racemase, which directly converts L-serine to D-serine. Inhibitors of this enzyme should reduce NMDA neurotransmission and might be therapeutic in stroke and other conditions associated with glutamate excitotoxicity. Conclusions: The diversity of novel neurotransmitters and venues of their activity afford multiple opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 27/10/20 alle ore 10:43:02