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Titolo:
Spatial competition among clonal organisms in extant and selected Paleozoic reef communities
Autore:
Fagerstrom, JA; West, RR; Kershaw, S; Cossey, PJ;
Indirizzi:
Univ Canterbury, Dept Geol, Christchurch 1, New Zealand Univ Canterbury Christchurch New Zealand 1 , Christchurch 1, New Zealand EPHE, CRIOBE, URA CNRS 1453, Moorea, Fr Polynesia EPHE Moorea Fr Polynesia E, CRIOBE, URA CNRS 1453, Moorea, Fr Polynesia Kansas State Univ, Dept Geol, Manhattan, KS 66506 USA Kansas State Univ Manhattan KS USA 66506 pt Geol, Manhattan, KS 66506 USA Brunel Univ, Dept Geog & Earth Sci, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, Middx, England Brunel Univ Uxbridge Middx England UB8 3PH bridge UB8 3PH, Middx, England Sch Sci, Stoke On Trent ST4 2DE, Staffs, England Sch Sci Stoke On Trent Staffs England ST4 2DE nt ST4 2DE, Staffs, England
Titolo Testata:
FACIES
, volume: 42, anno: 2000,
pagine: 1 - 24
SICI:
0172-9179(2000)42:<1:SCACOI>2.0.ZU;2-C
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION; SPONGE/CORAL INTERACTIONS; SCLERACTINIAN CORALS; MARINE ORGANISMS; CARIBBEAN REEFS; RED-SEA; SPONGES; GROWTH; OVERGROWTH; PATTERNS;
Keywords:
competition; spatial; reefs; ecology; corals; sponges; skeletal effects; polynesia/Gotland/England/Kansas; extant/Carboniferous/Silurian;
Tipo documento:
Review
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences
Citazioni:
128
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Fagerstrom, JA Univ Canterbury, Dept Geol, Christchurch 1, New Zealand Univ Canterbury Christchurch New Zealand 1 1, New Zealand
Citazione:
J.A. Fagerstrom et al., "Spatial competition among clonal organisms in extant and selected Paleozoic reef communities", FACIES, 42, 2000, pp. 1-24

Abstract

Occurrences of densely packed benthic organisms in extant reefs are of twotypes: 1) live-live interactions, where two living organisms interact, and2) live-dead associations, where only one is alive and uses the other as asubstrate. The latter are common in reef deposits due to biostratinomic feedback, i.e. dense skeletal accumulations provide hard substrates for clonal recruitment, thus facilitating greater frequency of live-dead encounters than in lower biomass level-bottom communities dominated by solitary organisms. Differentiating between these two types in ancient reefs is difficult,often impossible. Most live-live interactions among clones in extant reef communities involve competition for space. Clonal spatial competition is divisible into four types: 1) direct-aggressive: encrusting overgrowth; 2) indirect-passive: depriving neighbors of resources, chiefly sunlight, by growth above them; 3) stand-off: avoidance of competition by organisms adopting positions that avoid or minimize direct polyp/zooid contact; and 4) overwhelming: one clone/species volumetrically or numerically overwhelms the other, meeting minimal resistance. Despite class-order level differences in taxa, our results indicate that extant analogs, based on the arrangement and distortion of skeletons, are valuable for recognizing live-live interactions in Silurian and Carboniferous reefs and interpreting the types of spatial competition represented. Comparison of overhead (plan) views of live-live coral competition in Polynesian reefs with vertical sections of Silurian and Carboniferous sponge-dominated reefs and biostromes suggests that direct-aggressive competition ismore common among extant than among Paleozoic reef-builders. Stand-offs showing clone margin distortion and overwhelming with minor skeletal distortion are most common in our fossil examples and probably relate to the dominance of these reefs by sponges. Success by extant sponges in spatial competition is largely due to allelochemical deterrence which may explain the predominance of stand-off and overwhelming confrontations in fossil sponges rather than tentacle-mesentery based direct aggression among extant corals andbryozoans.

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Documento generato il 04/07/20 alle ore 20:32:54