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Titolo:
Evidence and possible mechanisms of altered maximum heart rate with endurance training and tapering
Autore:
Zavorsky, GS;
Indirizzi:
Univ British Columbia, Dept Expt Med, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada Univ British Columbia Vancouver BC Canada V5Z 1M9 ver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada
Titolo Testata:
SPORTS MEDICINE
fascicolo: 1, volume: 29, anno: 2000,
pagine: 13 - 26
SICI:
0112-1642(200001)29:1<13:EAPMOA>2.0.ZU;2-G
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS; CHRONIC DYNAMIC EXERCISE; CARDIOVASCULAR-RESPONSES; DISTANCE RUNNERS; BLOOD-PRESSURE; BAROREFLEX RESPONSES; INDUCED HYPERVOLEMIA; CAROTID BAROREFLEX; STROKE VOLUME; AEROBIC POWER;
Tipo documento:
Review
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Clinical Medicine
Citazioni:
115
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Zavorsky, GS Univ Vancouver Hosp, Room S-154,Koerner Pavil,2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z7, Canada Univ Vancouver Hosp Room S-154,Koerner Pavil,2211 Wesbrook Mall Vancouver BC Canada V6T 1Z7
Citazione:
G.S. Zavorsky, "Evidence and possible mechanisms of altered maximum heart rate with endurance training and tapering", SPORT MED, 29(1), 2000, pp. 13-26

Abstract

Exercise physiologists, coaches and athletes have traditionally used heartrate (HR) to monitor training intensity during exercise. While it is knownthat aerobic training decreases submaximal HR (HRsubmax) at a given absolute exercise workload, the general consensus is that maximum HR (HRmax) is relatively unaltered regardless of training status in a given population. Ithas not been seriously postulated as to whether HRmax can change modestly with aerobic training/detraining. Despite several sources stating that HRmax is unaltered with training, several studies report that HRmax is reduced following regular aerobic exercise by sedentary adults and endurance athletes, and can increase upon cessation of aerobic exercise. Furthermore, evidence suggests that tapering/detraining can increase HRmax. Therefore, it is plausible that some of the same mechanisms that affect both resting and HR,may also play a role in altered HRmax. Some of the proposed mechanisms forchanges in HRmax that may occur with aerobic training include autonomic (extrinsic) factors such as plasma volume expansion and enhanced baroreflex function, while some nonautonomic (intrinsic) factors are alteration of the electrophysiology of the sinoatrial (SA) node and decreased Cs-adrenergic receptor number and density. There is a high correlation between changes in both maximal oxygen uptake ((V) over dot O-2max) and HRmax that occurs withtraining, tapering and detraining (r = -0.76; p < 0.0001; n = 314), which indicates that as (V) over dot O-2max improves with training, HRmax tends to decrease, and when detraining ensues, HRmax tends to increase. The overall effect of aerobic training and detraining on HRmax is moderate: effect sizes based on several studies were calculated to be -0.48 and +0.54. respectively. Therefore, analysis reveals that HRmax can be altered by 3 to 7% with aerobic training/detraining. However, because of a lack of research in the area of training on HRmax, the reader should remain speculative and allowfor cautious interpretation until further, more thorough investigations are carried out as to the confirmation of mechanisms involved. Despite the limitations of using HR and HRmax as a guide to training intensity, the practical implications of monitoring changing HRmax are: (i) pre scribed training intensities may be more precisely monitor-ed; and (ii) prevention of overtraining may possibly be enhanced. As such, it may be sensible to monitor HRmax directly in athletes throughout the training year, perhaps at every macrocycle (3 to 6 weeks).

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Documento generato il 03/12/20 alle ore 12:46:44