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Titolo:
Perspective: The pace of modern life: Measuring rates of contemporary microevolution
Autore:
Hendry, AP; Kinnison, MT;
Indirizzi:
Univ British Columbia, Dept Zool, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada Univ British Columbia Vancouver BC Canada V6T 1Z4 ver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada Dartmouth Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Hanover, NH 03755 USA Dartmouth Coll Hanover NH USA 03755 Dept Biol Sci, Hanover, NH 03755 USA
Titolo Testata:
EVOLUTION
fascicolo: 6, volume: 53, anno: 1999,
pagine: 1637 - 1653
SICI:
0014-3820(199912)53:6<1637:PTPOML>2.0.ZU;2-U
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
SALMON ONCORHYNCHUS-TSHAWYTSCHA; QUANTITATIVE-GENETIC-ANALYSIS; GUPPIES POECILIA-RETICULATA; INTENSE NATURAL-SELECTION; SOCKEYE-SALMON; MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS; HISTORY EVOLUTION; LAKE WASHINGTON; DARWIN FINCHES; FRESH-WATER;
Keywords:
darwins; evolutionary rates; haldanes; microevolution; population divergence; rapid evolution;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Agriculture,Biology & Environmental Sciences
Life Sciences
Citazioni:
82
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Hendry, AP Univ British Columbia, Dept Zool, 6270 Univ Blvd, Vancouver, BCV6T 1Z4, Canada Univ British Columbia 6270 Univ Blvd Vancouver BC Canada V6T 1Z4
Citazione:
A.P. Hendry e M.T. Kinnison, "Perspective: The pace of modern life: Measuring rates of contemporary microevolution", EVOLUTION, 53(6), 1999, pp. 1637-1653

Abstract

We evaluate methods for measuring and specifying rates of microevolution in the wild, with particular regard to studies of contemporary, often deemed"rapid," evolution. A considerable amount of ambiguity and inconsistency persists within the field, and we provide a number of suggestions that should improve study design, inference, and clarity of presentation. (1) Some studies measure change over time within a population (allochronic) and othersmeasure the difference between two populations that had a common ancestor in the past (synchronic). Allochronic studies can be used to estimate ratesof "evolution," whereas synchronic studies more appropriately estimate rates of "divergence. " Rates of divergence may range from a small fraction to many times the actual evolutionary rates in the component populations. (2) Some studies measure change using individuals captured from the wild, whereas others measure differences after rearing in a common environment. The first type of study can be used to specify "phenotypic" rates and the later "genetic" rates. (3) The most commonly used evolutionary rate metric, the darwin, has a number of theoretical shortcomings. Studies of microevolution would benefit from specifying rates in standard deviations per generation, the haldane. (4) Evolutionary rates are typically specified without an indication of their precision. Readily available methods for specifying confidence intervals and statistical significance (regression, bootstrapping, randomization) should be implemented. (5) Microevolutionists should strive to accumulate time series, which can reveal temporal shifts in the rate of evolution and can be used to identify evolutionary patterns. (6) Evolutionary rates provide a convenient way to compare the tempo of evolution across studies, traits, taxa, and time scales, but such comparisons are subject to varying degrees of confidence. Comparisons across different time scales are particularly tenuous. (7) A number of multivariate rate measures exist, but considerable theoretical development is required before their utility can be determined. We encourage the continued investigation of evolutionary rates because the information they provide is relevant to a wide range of theoretical and practical issues.

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Documento generato il 04/04/20 alle ore 02:30:26