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Titolo:
Cortisol in teleosts: dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation
Autore:
Mommsen, TP; Vijayan, MM; Moon, TW;
Indirizzi:
Univ Victoria, Dept Biochem & Microbiol, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6, Canada UnivVictoria Victoria BC Canada V8W 3P6 ol, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6, Canada Univ Waterloo, Dept Biol, Waterloo, ON, Canada Univ Waterloo Waterloo ON Canada terloo, Dept Biol, Waterloo, ON, Canada Univ Ottawa, Dept Biol, Ottawa, ON, Canada Univ Ottawa Ottawa ON CanadaUniv Ottawa, Dept Biol, Ottawa, ON, Canada
Titolo Testata:
REVIEWS IN FISH BIOLOGY AND FISHERIES
fascicolo: 3, volume: 9, anno: 1999,
pagine: 211 - 268
SICI:
0960-3166(199909)9:3<211:CITDMO>2.0.ZU;2-3
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
TROUT ONCORHYNCHUS-MYKISS; FISH GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR; PITUITARY-INTERRENAL AXIS; ANGUILLA-ANGUILLA-L; SALMON SALMO-SALAR; CORTICOSTEROID-BINDING GLOBULIN; SALVELINUS-FONTINALIS MITCHILL; JUVENILE RAINBOW-TROUT; TYROSINE AMINOTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY; TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS-MOSSAMBICUS;
Keywords:
cortisol biosynthesis; gluconeogenesis; hormone responsive elements; metabolic regulation; physiology; steroid receptor;
Tipo documento:
Review
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Agriculture,Biology & Environmental Sciences
Citazioni:
378
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Mommsen, TP Univ Victoria, Dept Biochem & Microbiol, POB 3055, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6, Canada Univ Victoria POB 3055 Victoria BC Canada V8W 3P6 3P6, Canada
Citazione:
T.P. Mommsen et al., "Cortisol in teleosts: dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation", REV FISH B, 9(3), 1999, pp. 211-268

Abstract

Cortisol is the principal corticosteriod in teleost fishes and its plasma concentrations rise dramatically during stress. The relationship between this cortisol increase and its metabolic consequences are subject to extensive debate. Much of this debate arises from the different responses of the many species used, the diversity of approaches to manipulate cortisol levels,and the sampling techniques and duration. Given the extreme differences inexperimental approach, it is not surprising that inconsistencies exist within the literature. This review attempts to delineate common themes on the physiological and metabolic roles of cortisol in teleost fishes and to suggest new approaches that might overcome some of the inconsistencies on the role of this multifaceted hormone. We detail the dynamics of cortisol, especially the exogenous and endogenous factors modulating production, clearanceand tissue availability of the hormone. We focus on the mechanisms of action, the biochemical and physiological impact, and the interaction with other hormones so as to provide a conceptual framework for cortisol under resting and/or stressed states. Interpretation of interactions between cortisol and other glucoregulatory hormones is hampered by the absence of adequate hormone quantification, resulting in correlative rather than causal relationships. The use of mammalian paradigms to explain the teleost situation is generally inappropriate. The absence of a unique mineralocorticoid and likely minor importance of glucose in fishes means that cortisol serves both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid roles; the unusual structure of the fish glucocorticoid receptor may be a direct consequence of this duality. Cortisol affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and lipid. Generally cortisolis hyperglycaemic, primarily as a result of increases in hepatic gluconeogenesis initiated as a result of peripheral proteolysis. The increased plasma fatty acid levels during hypercortisolaemia may assist to fuel the enhanced metabolic rates noted for a number of fish species. Cortisol is an essential component of the stress response in fish, but also plays a significantrole in osmoregulation, growth and reproduction. Interactions between cortisol and toxicants may be the key to the physiology of this hormone, although cortisol's many important housekeeping functions must not be ignored. Combining molecular approaches with isolated cell systems and the whole fish will lead to an improved understanding of the many faces of this complex hormone in an evolutionary and environmental framework.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 22/10/20 alle ore 03:30:14