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Titolo:
Coping with spatial heterogeneity effects on sampling and analysis at an HMX-contaminated antitank firing range
Autore:
Jenkins, TF; Grant, CL; Walsh, ME; Thorne, PG; Thiboutot, S; Ampleman, G; Ranney, TA;
Indirizzi:
USA, Cold Reg Res & Engn Lab, Hanover, NH 03755 USA USA Hanover NH USA 03755 , Cold Reg Res & Engn Lab, Hanover, NH 03755 USA Def Res Estab Valcartier, Val Belair, PQ G3J 1X5, Canada Def Res Estab Valcartier Val Belair PQ Canada G3J 1X5 PQ G3J 1X5, Canada Space & Technol Corp, Hanover, NH 03755 USA Space & Technol Corp Hanover NH USA 03755 nol Corp, Hanover, NH 03755 USA
Titolo Testata:
FIELD ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY
fascicolo: 1, volume: 3, anno: 1999,
pagine: 19 - 28
SICI:
1086-900X(1999)3:1<19:CWSHEO>2.0.ZU;2-K
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
SOIL; TNT;
Keywords:
spatial heterogeneity; explosives; HMX; TNT; soil; sampling error; on-site methods; colorimetric;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Agriculture,Biology & Environmental Sciences
Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences
Engineering, Computing & Technology
Citazioni:
24
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Jenkins, TF USA, Cold Reg Res & Engn Lab, 72 Lyme Rd, Hanover, NH 03755 USA USA 72 Lyme Rd Hanover NH USA 03755 Rd, Hanover, NH 03755 USA
Citazione:
T.F. Jenkins et al., "Coping with spatial heterogeneity effects on sampling and analysis at an HMX-contaminated antitank firing range", FIELD A C T, 3(1), 1999, pp. 19-28

Abstract

Short-range and mid-range (grid size) spatial heterogeneity in explosives concentrations within surface soils was studied at an active antitank firing range. Intensive sampling was conducted adjacent to two target tanks by establishing sixteen 6-m-square grids. Each grid was subdivided into four quadrants, and in each quadrant an area-integrated surface sample was formed into a pile that included about 10% of the top 5 cm of soil in the quadrant. After in situ homogenization, random aliquots were combined to form replicate representative samples. Grid composites were also prepared by combining equal portions of soil from the four quadrants for each grid. In nine of the quadrants, a second area-integrated sample was prepared. On-site analysis showed concentrations of HMX ranging from as high as 2160 mg/kg near onetarget to less than or equal to 1 mg/kg at a distance of 20 m from the target. TNT concentrations, ranging from less than or equal to 1 to 23 mg/kg, were much tower than would be expected based on the 70:30 composition ratioof HMX to TNT in the melt-cast explosive used on site. On-site concentration estimates for HMX and TNT were in excellent agreement with laboratory HPLC results; correlation coefficients were 0.992 and 0.975, respectively. Spatial heterogeneity of HMX concentrations was large on both short- and midrange scales, and this factor dominated the overall uncertainty associated with site characterization. Greater emphasis on sampling is urgently needed to improve the representativeness of explosives residue determinations in soil. (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 01/10/20 alle ore 05:58:20