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Titolo:
VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS FOR TERM INFANTS - CONSIDERATIONS FOR INFANT FORMULAS
Autore:
POWERS HJ;
Indirizzi:
UNIV SHEFFIELD,CHILDRENS HOSP,DEPT PAEDIAT SHEFFIELD S10 2TH S YORKSHIRE ENGLAND
Titolo Testata:
Nutrition research reviews
, volume: 10, anno: 1997,
pagine: 1 - 33
SICI:
0954-4224(1997)10:<1:VRFTI->2.0.ZU;2-W
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
BREAST-FED INFANTS; PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY; FOLIC-ACID SUPPLEMENTATION; MATERNAL DIETARY-INTAKE; D DEFICIENCY RICKETS; RAT SMALL-INTESTINE; MATURE HUMAN-MILK; RIBOFLAVIN DEFICIENCY; PREMATURE-INFANTS; LACTATING WOMEN;
Tipo documento:
Review
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Science Citation Index Expanded
Citazioni:
203
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Citazione:
H.J. Powers, "VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS FOR TERM INFANTS - CONSIDERATIONS FOR INFANT FORMULAS", Nutrition research reviews, 10, 1997, pp. 1-33

Abstract

Objective. To provide the informed health professional with an up to date evaluation of the current thinking regarding requirements for vitamins in infant feeds. Establishing criteria por adequacy. Vitamin adequacy in the neonate is currently defined in terms of circulating levels of a vitamin or of the activity of a vitamin dependent enzyme in the erythrocytes. Although these measurements have their value there is a need to develop biochemical, physiological or clinical markers of well defined specific function. For some vitamins there is a risk of deleterious effects of very high intakes: risk of toxicity needs to be taken into consideration when making recommendations for inclusion in infant formulae. Breast milk as the 'gold standard'. Breast milk concentrations of vitamins have been used as the criteria of adequate intake by neonates. This may not always be justified. Greater consideration needs to be given to differences in bioavailability of vitamins from breast milk compared with formula feeds, of the influence of season, andof stage of lactation, on the stated composition. Experimental approaches. Animal studies have provided limited information regarding effects of different levels of intakes on current status indices in the neonatal period. There are few reports of randomized controlled studies into the effects of different levels of vitamins and these rely heavilyon biochemical criteria of adequacy. Recent developments. The inclusion of beta-carotene into formula feeds for premature babies is an issue of current interest. What is the justification for this? Are there potential benefits for the term infant? Riboflavin deficiency in the period around weaning may affect the normal structural and functional development of the gastrointestinal tract; some of these effects may be permanent. Research to be done. A greater understanding of the absorption and metabolism of vitamins during infancy is required in order to help establish dietary requirements. The relative bioavailability of vitamins in human milk and formulae needs to be investigated. Criteria for vitamin adequacy should be extended to include measures of function. Information regarding the conversion factor from tryptophan to niacin in infancy would allow us to set niacin requirements with greater confidence. There is a particular lack of information about concentrations of biotin and pantothenic acid in breast milk and the relative biochemical status of infants receiving breast milk and formulae. Benefits of including beta-carotene into infant formulae need to be evaluated. The role of individual micronutrients in the structural and functional development of the gastrointestinal tract should be explored.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 14/08/20 alle ore 07:33:32