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Titolo:
An ant-plant mutualism and its host-specific parasite: activity rhythms, young leaf patrolling, and effects on herbivores of two specialist plant-ants inhabiting the same myrmecophyte
Autore:
Gaume, L; McKey, D;
Indirizzi:
CNRS, CEFE, F-34293 Montpellier 5, France CNRS Montpellier France 5CNRS, CEFE, F-34293 Montpellier 5, France
Titolo Testata:
OIKOS
fascicolo: 1, volume: 84, anno: 1999,
pagine: 130 - 144
SICI:
0030-1299(199901)84:1<130:AAMAIH>2.0.ZU;2-D
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
LEONARDOXA-AFRICANA; EVOLUTION; TRANSMISSION; CASTRATION; VIRULENCE; OUTCOMES; BENEFITS; ECOLOGY;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Agriculture,Biology & Environmental Sciences
Citazioni:
41
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Indirizzo: Gaume, L CNRS, CEFE, 1919 Route de Mende, F-34293 Montpellier 5, France CNRS 1919 Route de Mende Montpellier France 5 tpellier 5, France
Citazione:
L. Gaume e D. McKey, "An ant-plant mutualism and its host-specific parasite: activity rhythms, young leaf patrolling, and effects on herbivores of two specialist plant-ants inhabiting the same myrmecophyte", OIKOS, 84(1), 1999, pp. 130-144

Abstract

Leonardoxa africana is an understorey tree of the coastal rainforests of Cameroon that provides food (extrafloral nectar) and nest sites (swollen, hollowed internodes) for ants. Only two host-specific species of ants inhabitthis tree. The present study showed that their distributions were mutuallyexclusive: the formicine ant Petalomyrmex phylax inhabited three-fourths of all occupied trees, while the myrmicine Cataulacus mckeyi occupied the remaining trees. In order to determine whether the presence of each of these ants was beneficial to the trees, we compared rates of damage on young leaves patrolled by ants and on young leaves from which ants were experimentally excluded. We also studied activity rhythms of the two ants and their responses to phytophagous insects they encountered. Young leaves patrolled by Petalomyrmex suffered significantly less damage than those from which ants were excluded (2% versus 24%). In contrast, young leaves patrolled by Cataulacus suffered much greater herbivory (31%) than those patrolled by Petalomyrmex, and herbivory on ant-patrolled leaves was not significantly differentfrom that on ant-excluded leaves (46%). Behavioural observations help to explain the difference between the effects of the two ant species. number ofworkers active on plant surfaces was much greater on Petalomyrmex-occupiedtrees than on trees occupied by Cataulacus. Petalomyrmex workers patrolledyoung leaves constantly (day and night) and chased out or killed microlepidopteran larvae placed on young leaves. The patrolling activity of Cataulacus was only diurnal (rather well correlated with the activity of nectar production), and Cataulacus workers failed to consistently attack herbivores. These results confirm that Petalomyrmex is a mutualist of Leonardoxa and demonstrate that Cataulacus, exploiting the resources of its host, providing no protection and excluding the mutualist from trees it occupies, is a parasite of the mutualism. We discuss origin, ecological persistence and evolutionary stability of such a parasitic strategy in plant-ant symbioses, and we ask whether mutualisms may evolve from such parasitic relationships.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 24/09/20 alle ore 04:02:29