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Titolo:
MUSCLE LIPIDS AND MEAL QUALITY - PHOSPHOL IPIDS AND FLAVOR
Autore:
GANDEMER G;
Indirizzi:
LEIMA,INST NATL RECH AGRON,GRP LIPIDES FLAVEUR,BP 71627 F-44316 NANTES 3 FRANCE
Titolo Testata:
OCL. Oleagineux corps gras lipides
fascicolo: 1, volume: 4, anno: 1997,
pagine: 19 - 25
SICI:
1258-8210(1997)4:1<19:MLAMQ->2.0.ZU;2-N
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
FRE
Soggetto:
WARMED-OVER FLAVOR; FROZEN STORAGE; MODEL SYSTEMS; TRIGLYCERIDES; BEEF; COOKING;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Science Citation Index Expanded
Science Citation Index Expanded
Science Citation Index Expanded
Citazioni:
38
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Citazione:
G. Gandemer, "MUSCLE LIPIDS AND MEAL QUALITY - PHOSPHOL IPIDS AND FLAVOR", OCL. Oleagineux corps gras lipides, 4(1), 1997, pp. 19-25

Abstract

Lipids are involved in many aspects of meat quality, especially in aroma. Among intramuscular lipids, phospholipids are the most reactive molecules because of their large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (15-25%) and because of their amphipatic character. Phospholipids represent between 0.5-1.0% of the wet weight of muscles. The proportions of the main phospholipid classes varied between 20 and 30% for the phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), 45 and 60% for the phosphatidyl choline (PC), 2 and 10% for the cardiolipin, 4 and 10% for the phosphatidyl inositol (PI). Phospholipid amount and composition are mainly related to the metabolic type of muscle fibres. Phospholipids contain a large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. They are mainly located in phosphatidyl ethanolamine and are largely esterified in plasmalogens. The main factors of phospholipid fatty acid composition are animal species and the type of dietary fat in poultry and monogastric animals. After animal death, phospholipids undergo irreversible damages through hydrolysis and oxidation. Hydrolysis of phospholipids is only observed in raw meat. Phospholipid hydrolysis by phospholipases and lysophospholipases releases long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids which can promote lipid oxidation during meat processing. Oxidation affected mainly phospholipids in raw and cooked meat, especially during cooking. Phosphatidyl ethanolamine isthe more altered phospholipid class during heating because it contained a large proportion of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and anamino-group as polar head. Phospholipids are largely involved in aroma of cooked meat. Phospholipids and their oxidation products are essential to obtain the typical flavour of cooked or roasted meat. Phospholipids interfere in Maillard reactions because the fatty acid oxidationproducts and their polar head group react with precursors of sulfuryland nitrogen heterocyclic compounds formed during Maillard reactions. Thus, these reactions reduce the amount of heterocyclic compounds andimprove greatly the perception of the notes, typical of cooked meat aroma. Aroma of cooked meat and ifs change during meat storage depend on the balance between the amounts of fatty acid oxidation products arising from Maillard Phospholipids are involved in both oxidation and Maillard reactions. Phospholipids provide many volatile compounds arising from oxidation of their unsaturated fatty acids. When these compounds are present in significant amount, they caused unpleasant flavours which are called off flavours. The molecules involved are carbonyl compounds which have low threshold perception (ppb to ppm). They are mainly coming from the oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-6 series and also from those of the n-3 series. The type of oxidation products varies according to the fatty acids series. Thus, the amount and the composition of the volatile compounds arising from oxidationcan be controlled by changing fatty acid composition of muscle phospholipids through dietary fats at least in poultry and pig.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 02/12/20 alle ore 14:06:21