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Titolo:
IMMUNOREGULATION BY CYTOKINES
Autore:
KROEMER G; DEALBORAN IM; GONZALO JA; MARTINEZ C;
Indirizzi:
UNIV AUTOHOMA MADRID,CSIC,CTR BIOL MOLEC,CAMPUS CANTOBLANCO E-28049 MADRID SPAIN
Titolo Testata:
Critical reviews in immunology
fascicolo: 2, volume: 13, anno: 1993,
pagine: 163 - 191
SICI:
1040-8401(1993)13:2<163:IBC>2.0.ZU;2-V
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR; RECOMBINANT VACCINIA VIRUS; GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA; EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS; INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST; T-CELL DEVELOPMENT; CARDIAC ALLOGRAFT SURVIVAL; HIGH-DOSE INTERLEUKIN-2; ACTIVATED KILLER CELLS; VERSUS-HOST DISEASE;
Keywords:
AUTOIMMUNITY; INTERLEUKINS; IMMUNE RESPONSE; INFECTION; TOLERANCE;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Science Citation Index Expanded
Citazioni:
244
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Citazione:
G. Kroemer et al., "IMMUNOREGULATION BY CYTOKINES", Critical reviews in immunology, 13(2), 1993, pp. 163-191

Abstract

The study of cytokine biology relevant to the in vivo (patho)physiology of the immune response is complicated by a series of features inherent to the cytokine system. The present survey focuses on the mechanisms governing the function of cytokines that may give rise to methodological and conceptual problems concerning in vivo manipulations of immunologically relevant cytokines. Special emphasis is laid on the complex interrelation between individual cytokines (cascades, synergy, anergy, pleiotropism, and redundancy), as well as on the mechanisms that guarantee a compartmentalization of cytokines, i.e., a chronological, spatial, cell-type differentiation stage, and activation-dependent restriction of their function. The in vivo effects of cytokines can be studied either by augmenting their concentration or reducing their bioavailability. The advantages of local and systemic cytokine injections, usage of transgenes, or expression as gene products encoded by recombinant viruses are discussed and contrasted with different manipulations provoking cytokine deficiencies, namely the application of cytokine antagonists, neutralizing antibodies and receptor derivates, receptor-targeted cytotoxic drugs, and germ line disruption of cytokine genes. Both types of intervention are afflicted with major problems. Whereas providing an excess of cytokines in vivo, especially at the systemic level, constitutes an essentially non-physiological intervention, the induction of cytokine deficiencies will only unravel essential effects, but is incapable of elucidating the many pleiotropic cytokine effects that, by virtue of the redundancy of the system, compensate for each other.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 16/07/20 alle ore 19:42:05