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Titolo:
NEUROCHEMICAL MECHANISMS MEDIATING THE BEHAVIORAL AND COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF NICOTINE
Autore:
GRAY JA; MITCHELL SN; JOSEPH MH; GRIGORYAN GA; DAWE S; HODGES H;
Indirizzi:
INST PSYCHIAT,DEPT PSYCHOL,DE CRESPIGNY PK LONDON SE5 8AF ENGLAND
Titolo Testata:
Drug development research
fascicolo: 1, volume: 31, anno: 1994,
pagine: 3 - 17
SICI:
0272-4391(1994)31:1<3:NMMTBA>2.0.ZU;2-Y
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
CHOLINERGIC PROJECTION SYSTEM; RADIAL MAZE PERFORMANCE; FREELY MOVING RATS; RICH NEURAL GRAFTS; LATENT INHIBITION; PARTIAL-REINFORCEMENT; ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE; BASAL FOREBRAIN; EXCITOTOXIC LESIONS; CHRONIC AMPHETAMINE;
Keywords:
NICOTINE; CATECHOLAMINE SYSTEMS; CHOLINERGIC SYSTEMS; BEHAVIOR; COGNITION;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Science Citation Index Expanded
Citazioni:
83
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Citazione:
J.A. Gray et al., "NEUROCHEMICAL MECHANISMS MEDIATING THE BEHAVIORAL AND COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF NICOTINE", Drug development research, 31(1), 1994, pp. 3-17

Abstract

Data are reviewed, largely from experiments in the authors' laboratory, that suggest three modes of action of systemic nicotine in producing three different types of effect upon behavior and cognitive function. (1) Preexposure of a stimulus without consequence makes it harder subsequently to form associations to that stimulus, a form of selective attention known as latent inhibition. Latent inhibition is blocked by nicotine, an effect that is apparently mediated by a nicotine-induced increase in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. (2) A single dose of nicotine proactively increases the partial reinforcement extinction effect measured several weeks later: that is, resistance to extinction is decreased by nicotine in animals that have been trained on a continuous reinforcement schedule, and increased in animals trained on a partial reinforcement schedule. This effect appears to be due to increased synthesis of tyrosine hydroxylase in the cell bodies of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus, followed by axonal transport tothe hippocampus and increased synthesis and release of noradrenaline in that structure. (3) Nicotine improves vigilance in animals with cognitive deficits due to destruction of the forebrain cholinergic projection system, either as a consequence of excitotoxic lesions of the nuclei of origin of this system or after prolonged alcohol consumption; and also in human subjects with Alzheimer's disease (in which this system undergoes degeneration). This effect is most likely due to an action at denervated cholinergic synapses in the hippocampus and neocortex. (C) 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 04/04/20 alle ore 03:00:36