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Titolo:
ARE NEUROCHEMISTRY AND REINFORCEMENT ENOUGH - CAN THE ABUSE POTENTIALOF DRUGS BE EXPLAINED BY COMMON ACTIONS ON A DOPAMINE REWARD SYSTEM IN THE BRAIN
Autore:
JOSEPH MH; YOUNG AMJ; GRAY JA;
Indirizzi:
INST PSYCHIAT,DEPT PSYCHOL,DE CRESPIGNY PK LONDON SE5 8AF ENGLAND
Titolo Testata:
Human psychopharmacology
, volume: 11, anno: 1996, supplemento:, 1
pagine: 55 - 63
SICI:
0885-6222(1996)11:<55:ANARE->2.0.ZU;2-O
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
LATENT INHIBITION; NUCLEUS-ACCUMBENS; CONDITIONED SUPPRESSION; CHRONIC AMPHETAMINE; MESOLIMBIC SYSTEM; RATS; HALOPERIDOL; EXPRESSION; RELEASE; SENSITIZATION;
Keywords:
DRUGS OF ABUSE; AMPHETAMINE; NICOTINE; REWARD; AVERSION; LATENT INHIBITION; MECHANISMS OF ADDICTION;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences
Science Citation Index Expanded
Science Citation Index Expanded
Science Citation Index Expanded
Citazioni:
31
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Citazione:
M.H. Joseph et al., "ARE NEUROCHEMISTRY AND REINFORCEMENT ENOUGH - CAN THE ABUSE POTENTIALOF DRUGS BE EXPLAINED BY COMMON ACTIONS ON A DOPAMINE REWARD SYSTEM IN THE BRAIN", Human psychopharmacology, 11, 1996, pp. 55-63

Abstract

Many classes of drugs abused by man share with natural rewards the ability to increase dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)of the rat. However, this is unlikely to account for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, as NAc DA release is equally increased by aversive stimuli, and even by neutral stimuli paired together in a way that results in the formation of a conditioned association. Although NAcDA activity is thus increased by salient stimuli, and by salient associations between stimuli, It does not appear to be the case that the increase is critical for the formation of at least some types of conditioned associations. This makes it less likely that increased NAc DA activity underlies the reinforcing actions of these drugs in a general way. An action that two of these DA releasing drugs of abuse (amphetamine, nicotine) have in common is the disruption of latent inhibition (LI). In the case of amphetamine this action depends upon repeated administration, and, we believe, on the sensitization of DA release in NAc that this engenders. This sensitized DA release is qualitatively different, in that in contrast to the acute release, it is calcium dependent. Disruption of LI may therefore provide a biological marker for sensitization to amphetamine in rats. It may provide an account of the behavioural function of the NAc DA projections in terms of current relevance, or salience of stimuli. LI is a process in which prior experienceof stimuli alters the way they enter into current learning; conversely its disruption represents the predominance of current stimulus contingencies over 'knowledge' based on prior experience. Thus disrupted LImay provide us with an animal model of better construct validity for the behaviour of humans dependent upon drugs than do increased locomotor activity, or even increased reward, in animals

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Documento generato il 31/05/20 alle ore 11:03:09