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Titolo:
REPEATED ADDITION OF FENTANYL TO EPIDURAL BUPIVACAINE ANALGESIA DURING LABOR - CLINICAL EFFICACY AND PLASMA-CONCENTRATIONS OF FENTANYL
Autore:
VETTERMANN J; THOMAS H; LISCHKE V; ASSKALI F;
Indirizzi:
UNIV FRANKFURT KLINIKUM,ZENTRUM ANASTHESIOL & WIEDERBELEBUNG,ABT EXPTANASTHESIOL D-60596 FRANKFURT GERMANY
Titolo Testata:
Anasthesist
fascicolo: 5, volume: 45, anno: 1996,
pagine: 428 - 436
SICI:
0003-2417(1996)45:5<428:RAOFTE>2.0.ZU;2-3
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
GER
Soggetto:
EXTRADURAL FENTANYL; CESAREAN-SECTION; ANESTHESIA; RADIOIMMUNOASSAY; ALFENTANIL; LIDOCAINE; SERUM;
Keywords:
LABOR; EPIDURAL ANALGESIA; FENTANYL; PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS, MATERNAL, UMBILICAL;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Science Citation Index Expanded
Citazioni:
31
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Citazione:
J. Vettermann et al., "REPEATED ADDITION OF FENTANYL TO EPIDURAL BUPIVACAINE ANALGESIA DURING LABOR - CLINICAL EFFICACY AND PLASMA-CONCENTRATIONS OF FENTANYL", Anasthesist, 45(5), 1996, pp. 428-436

Abstract

A combination of epidural opioids with local anaesthetics has been used to improve pain relief during labor and to reduce side effects, such as muscle weakness, usually seen when local anaesthetics are used alone. The addition of epidural fentanyl (F) produces highly effective analgesia, the only side effect being mild itching. Initial trials investigated the improvement in analgesia after a single administration ofF during first- but not during second-stage labor. Even though pain perception during second-stage labor under epidural analgesia with local anaesthetics can be severe, the addition of opioids was avoided for fear of neonatal or maternal depression. A recent report found maternal and umbilical plasma concentrations following injection of 100 mu g F to be safe and the investigators speculated that repeated addition of epidural/F to injections of local anaesthetic may prove beneficial for the parturient without exposing the mother or fetus to risk. We therefore studied maternal analgesia maternal and umbilical plasma levelsand associated side effects following repeated addition of 100 mu g Fto bupivacaine epidural analgesia during labor. Methods. Following institutional and governmental approval 53 parturients were randomly assigned to receive either 8 ml bupivacaine 0.25%+0.1 mg fentanyl (B+F group; n=28) or 8 ml bupivacaine 0.25%+2 ml saline (BUP group; n=25) in an epidural catheter at L2/3. The same dose was reinjected upon the patients' request regardless of the degree of cervical dilatation. Bloodpressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and the incidence of side effects were recorded before and following each epidural injection. Pain relief was determined at each injection and following cord clamping using the visual analogue pain scale (VAS; 0-100 mm). Maternal venous blood samples were collected to measure plasma F concentrations before and 20 and 40 min after each injection and at birth when umbilical venous and arterial blood was obtained. After centrifugation the samples were maintained at -20 degrees C and then analyzed by radioimmunoassay. At delivery, Apgar scores and umbilical venous and arterial blood gas values were determined. Results. Both groups were comparable for age, weight, height, gestational age and parity. A total of 48 epidural injections were evaluated in the B+F group, 43 in the BUP group. No statistically significant, group difference was found between the frequencyof injections per delivery (B+F: 2.2; BUP: 1.8); regarding the time between the initial and the first top-up dose (B+F: 144 min; BUP: 140 min) or regarding the interval between the last injection and birth (B+F: 94 min; BUP; 90 min). However, the quality of pain relief during labor and particularly at birth was significantly improved by F (mean VAS in B+F group: 6 mm; mean VAS in BUP group: 42 mm). Mild itching was observed in 43% of patients receiving F moderate shivering in 13% versus 40% in patients not receiving F. At control mean maternal F plasma levels were not zero but 0.25 ng/ml. After the initial injection and following the first and second top-up dose mean maximum maternal F plasma concentrations were 0.54 ng/ml (+/-0.32; +/-SD), 0.88 ng/ml (+/-0.62 ) and 1.06 ng/ml (+/-0.4) (range 0.18-2.76 ng/ml) respectively. The increase in maternal F concentrations with increasing injection frequency was statistically significant (P<0.02). Mean umbilical venous and arterial F concentrations at birth were 0.72 ng/ml (+/-1.16) and 0.62 ng/ml (+/-0.52). No significant group differences were found regardingApgar scores or umbilical blood, gas analyses. In one newborn, radioimmunoassay resulted in unexplainably high umbilical F concentrations without any clinical signs of sedation, depressed vigilance and withoutany sequellae. Discussion. Repeated addition of 100 mu g F to epidural anaesthesia with bupivacaine significantly improves analgesia and provides pain relief not only during the first but also through the verypainful second stage of labor. In this study, F did not affect the onset or the duration of analgesia, probably due to the fact that bupivacaine was used at a fixed and (compared to other studies) relatively high concentration. We did not observe clinically relevant side effectsin the mother or the newborn. Although epidural injections of 100 mu g F were repeatedly administered, the mild dose-dependent increases ofmaternal and of umbilical plasma F concentrations had no effect and caused no clinical signs of depression. The specificity of radioimmunoassay for fentanyl in parturients is questioned.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 18/09/20 alle ore 19:41:25