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Titolo:
REAL-WORLD AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS - SUMMARY OF STUDIES IN THE FORT MCHENRY AND TUSCARORA MOUNTAIN TUNNELS
Autore:
PIERSON WR; GERTLER AW; ROBINSON NF; SAGEBIEL JC; ZIELINSKA B; BISHOP GA; STEDMAN DH; ZWEIDINGER RB; RAY WD;
Indirizzi:
UNIV NEVADA,DESERT RES INST,POB 60220 RENO NV 89506 UNIV DENVER,DEPT CHEM DENVER CO 80208 US EPA,ATMOSPHER RES & EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT LABS,MOBILE SOURCE EMISS RES BRANCH RES TRIANGLE PK NC 27711
Titolo Testata:
Atmospheric environment
fascicolo: 12, volume: 30, anno: 1996,
pagine: 2233 - 2256
SICI:
1352-2310(1996)30:12<2233:RAE-SO>2.0.ZU;2-U
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
CARBON-MONOXIDE EMISSIONS; PARTICULATE MATTER; LOS-ANGELES; VEHICLES; ROAD; RATES; DIESEL; CO;
Keywords:
REAL-WORLD VEHICLE EMISSIONS; NMHC; MOBILE MODELS; O-3 FORMATION; REMOTE SENSING;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Science Citation Index Expanded
Science Citation Index Expanded
Citazioni:
52
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Citazione:
W.R. Pierson et al., "REAL-WORLD AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS - SUMMARY OF STUDIES IN THE FORT MCHENRY AND TUSCARORA MOUNTAIN TUNNELS", Atmospheric environment, 30(12), 1996, pp. 2233-2256

Abstract

Motor vehicle emission rates of CO, NO, NOx, and gas-phase speciated nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and carbonyl compounds were measured in1992 in the Fort McHenry Tunnel under Baltimore Harbor and in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel of the Pennsylvania Turnpike, for comparison with emission-model predictions and for calculation of the reactivity ofvehicle emissions with respect to O-3 formation. Both tunnels represent a high-speed setting at relatively steady speed. The cars at both sites tended to be newer than elsewhere (median age was < 4 yr), and much better maintained as judged by low CO/CO2 ratios and other emissions characteristics. The Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel is hat, making it advantageous for testing automotive emission models, while in the underwater Fort McHenry Tunnel the impact of roadway grade can be evaluated. MOBILE4.1 and MOBILE5 gave predictions within +/- 50% of observation most of the time. There was a tendency to overpredict, especially with MOBILES and especially at Tuscarora. However, light-duty-vehicle CO, NMHC, and NOx all were underpredicted by MOBILE4.1 at Fort McHenry. Light-duty-vehicle CO/NOx ratios and NMHC/NOx ratios were generally a little higher than predicted. The comparability of the predictions to theobservations contrasts with a 1987 experiment in an urban tunnel (VanNuys) where CO and HC, as well as CO/NOx and NMHC/NOx ratios, were grossly underpredicted. The effect of roadway grade on gram per mile (g mi(-1)) emissions was substantial. Fuel-specific emissions (g gal(-1)), however, were almost independent of roadway grade, which suggests a potential virtue in emissions models based on fuel-specific emissions rather than g mi(-1) emissions. Some 200 NMHC and carbonyl emissions species were quantified as to their light- and heavy-duty-vehicle emission rates. The heavy-duty-vehicle NMHC emissions were calculated to possess more reactivity, per vehicle-mile, with respect to O-3 formation(g O-3 per vehicle-mile) than did the light-duty-vehicle NMHC emissions. Per gallon of fuel consumed, the light-duty vehicles had the greater reactivity. Much of the NMHC, and much of their reactivity with respect to O-3 formation, resided in compounds heavier than C-10, mostly from heavy-duty diesels, implying that atmospheric NMHC sampling with canisters alone is inadequate in at least some situations since canisters were round not to be quantitative beyond similar to C-10. The contrasting lack of compounds heavier than C-10 from light-duty vehicles suggests a way to separate light- and heavy-duty-vehicle contributions in receptor modeling source apportionment. The division between light-duty-vehicle tailpipe and nontailpipe NMHC emissions was similar to 85% tailpipe and similar to 15% nontailpipe (evaporative running losses,etc.). Measured CO/CO2 ratios agreed well with concurrent roadside infrared remote sensing measurements on light-duty vehicles, although remote sensing HC/CO2 ratio measurements were not successful at the low HC levels prevailing. Remote sensing measurements on heavy-duty diesels were obtained for the first time, and were roughly in agreement withthe regular (bag sampling) tunnel measurements in both CO/CO2 and HC/CO2 ratios. A number of recommendations for further experiments, measurement methodology development, and emissions model development and evaluation are offered. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

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Documento generato il 27/11/20 alle ore 12:08:00