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Titolo:
EFFECT OF SOWING TIME ON YIELD AND AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WHEATIN SOUTH-EASTERN AUSTRALIA
Autore:
GOMEZMACPHERSON H; RICHARDS RA;
Indirizzi:
CIDA,DEPT SUELOS & RIEGOS,APDO 4240 E-14080 CORDOBA SPAIN AUSTRALIAN NATL UNIV,RES SCH BIOL SCI CANBERRA ACT 2601 AUSTRALIA CSIRO,DIV PLANT IND CANBERRA ACT 2601 AUSTRALIA COOPERAT RES CTR PLANT SCI CANBERRA ACT 2601 AUSTRALIA
Titolo Testata:
Australian Journal of Agricultural Research
fascicolo: 7, volume: 46, anno: 1995,
pagine: 1381 - 1399
SICI:
0004-9409(1995)46:7<1381:EOSTOY>2.0.ZU;2-A
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
WATER-USE EFFICIENCY; MEDITERRANEAN-TYPE ENVIRONMENT; PLANT SPACING INFLUENCE; GRAIN-YIELD; IRRIGATED WHEAT; GROWTH; WALES; WINTER; DATE; GENOTYPE;
Keywords:
WHEAT; SOWING DATE; ANTHESIS; GRAIN YIELD; WATER USE EFFICIENCY; BARLEY YELLOW DWARF VIRUS;
Tipo documento:
Article
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Science Citation Index Expanded
Citazioni:
35
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Citazione:
H. Gomezmacpherson e R.A. Richards, "EFFECT OF SOWING TIME ON YIELD AND AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WHEATIN SOUTH-EASTERN AUSTRALIA", Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 46(7), 1995, pp. 1381-1399

Abstract

The main environmental constraints to the yield of dryland wheat in south-eastern Australia are: a low and erratic rainfall throughout the growing season, the chance of frost at flowering time, and high temperatures during the grain-filling period. The aims of this work were threefold. Firstly, to determine which sowing period minimizes these constraints and results in the highest yields. Secondly, what is the optimum flowering time for a given sowing date so that maximum yield is achieved. The third aim was to determine whether any crop characteristic was associated with high yield or may limit yield in the different sowings. The experiments were conducted at three sites in New South Walesthat were representative of dry (Condobolin) and cooler and wetter (Moombooldool, Wagga Wagga) sites in the south-eastern wheatbelt. In this study several sets of isogenic material, involving a total of 23 genotypes, that were similar in all respects except for flowering time, were sown early (mid-April and early May), normal (mid to late May) andlate (June to mid July). Characteristics of the highest-yielding lines in each experiment are presented. The average flowering time of the highest yielding lines in all sowings had a range of only 12 days at the driest site, but a range of over 20 days at the coolest and wettestsite. The optimum anthesis date (day of year, gamma) was related to sowing date (day of year, doy) at the cooler sites such that: gamma = 245+0.32 doy (r(2) = 0.86) and at Condobolin, gamma = 253+0.19 doy (r(2) = 0.91). Optimum anthesis date expressed in thermal time (degrees C days) after sowing (gamma) was related to sowing time (doy) as follows: gamma = 2709 -8.3 doy (r(2) = 0.84). It is suggested that these relationships are likely to be quite robust and should hold true for similar thermal environments in eastern Australia. There was little variation in grain yield between the earliest sowing in mid-April (108 doy) and sowings throughout May (up to 147 doy). Grain yield declined 1.3% per day that sowing was delayed after late May. Aboveground biomass wassubstantially higher in early sown crops. However, this did not translate into higher yields. From the evidence presented it is argued thatthe principal reason that greater yields were not obtained in the early sowings, particularly in the April sowing, was the greater competition for assimilates between the growing spike and the elongating stem. It is suggested that a way of overcoming this competition is to genetically shorten the stems of winter wheats. This should capitalize on the considerable advantages in terms of water use efficiency that earlysowing offers and result in greater yields. Barley yellow dwarf virus, although present at the cooler, wettest site in one year, was more frequent in the later sowings than in the early sowing and was not likely to have contributed to the lower than expected yields in the early sowings.

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Documento generato il 27/11/20 alle ore 07:15:00