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Titolo:
THE PSYCHOBIOLOGICAL BASIS OF POSTTRAUMATIC-STRESS-DISORDER
Autore:
GRILLON C; SOUTHWICK SM; CHARNEY DS;
Indirizzi:
YALE UNIV,SCH MED,DEPT PSYCHIAT,40 TEMPLE ST,SUITE 7B NEW HAVEN CT 06510 VET ADM MED CTR,NATL CTR POST TRAUMAT STRESS DISORDER W HAVEN CT 00000
Titolo Testata:
Molecular psychiatry
fascicolo: 4, volume: 1, anno: 1996,
pagine: 278 - 297
SICI:
1359-4184(1996)1:4<278:TPBOP>2.0.ZU;2-W
Fonte:
ISI
Lingua:
ENG
Soggetto:
CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING-FACTOR; FEAR-POTENTIATED STARTLE; VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA; URINARY CATECHOLAMINE EXCRETION; UNCONDITIONED AVERSIVE STIMULI; SHOCK INDUCED ANTINOCICEPTION; TERMINALIS LESIONS ATTENUATE; FACTOR-LIKE IMMUNOREACTIVITY; POST-TRAINING EPINEPHRINE; DIFFERENT OPIOID SYSTEMS;
Keywords:
POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER; ANXIETY; TRAUMA; NEUROBIOLOGY; HUMAN;
Tipo documento:
Review
Natura:
Periodico
Settore Disciplinare:
Science Citation Index Expanded
Science Citation Index Expanded
Citazioni:
257
Recensione:
Indirizzi per estratti:
Citazione:
C. Grillon et al., "THE PSYCHOBIOLOGICAL BASIS OF POSTTRAUMATIC-STRESS-DISORDER", Molecular psychiatry, 1(4), 1996, pp. 278-297

Abstract

Posttraumatic stress disorder is a disorder with an identifiable etiological factor (exposure to a traumatic event) and with a complex symptomatology (ie intrusive memories, avoidance, hyperarousal) that suggests dysfunction in multiple psychobiological systems. This review considers studies of the neurobiological consequences of acute and chronicstress showing that traumatic experiences can produce long-lasting alterations in multiple neurochemical systems. The role of the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system, prefrontal cortex dopaminergic system, endogenous opiates, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and cortico-releasing factors are reviewed. Several models of PTSD are highlighted, including fear conditioning, kindling, and sensitization. In particular, fear conditioning to explicit and contextual cues is proposed as a model for intrusive memories reactivated by trauma-related stimuli and hyperarousal, respectively. It is argued that the amygdala plays a crucial role in the encoding and retrieval of fear memories activated by specific stimuli that have been associated with aversive events, Association involving more complex environmental stimuli and aversive events may require the involvement of the hippocampus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Repeated activation of conditioned fear memories may produce a kindling-like process which results in spontaneous intrusive memories.

ASDD Area Sistemi Dipartimentali e Documentali, Università di Bologna, Catalogo delle riviste ed altri periodici
Documento generato il 12/07/20 alle ore 12:41:30